Flashcards in Bones and Joints Deck (35):
What bones make up the axial skeleton?
Bones of the head neck and trunk.
What bones make up the appendicular skeleton?
Bones of the limbs, including those forming the pectoral and pelvic girdles.
What is the purpose of bones?
Protection for vital structure
Support for the body and its cavities Mechanical basis for movement
Storage for salts
Continuous supply of new blood cells.
What is the structure of bone?
Ostions (longitudinally for support)
What is the outermost covering of bone?
What is the periosteum?
A fibrous connective tissue sleeve that covers the bone.
Name the bones of the cranial vault?
Sphenoid (left and right
Temporal (left and right)
Parietal (left and right)
Name the bones of the facial skeleton?
Nasal (left and right)
Zygoma (left and right)
How many vertebrae in total?
How many of each type of vertebrae?
7 x cervical
12 x thoracic
5 x lumbar
5 x sacral
4 x coccygeal
What is the largest vertebrae?
The thoracic and sacral curvatures are primary.
cervical and lumbar curves are secondary curvatures.
True or false?
Name the parts of a normal vertebrae?
Name the 7 processes normally found on a vertebrae?
1 x median spinous process (projects posteriorly)
2 x transverse processes
4 x articular processes (2 x superior - larger- and 2 x inferior)
Where does the spinal cord pass through vertebrae?
Name of C1 and why it is different?
No spinous process or body, instead has an anterior and posterior arch.
Name C2 and why it is different?
Has an odontoid process which projects superiorly from the the vertebral body.
Name C7 and why it is different?
The first palpable spinous process (found midline of posterior aspect of the neck).
Each rib has a spongy interior containing what?
Each rib has a....?
On the inferior edge of each rib there is a groove protecting what?
Intercostal neurovascular bundles.
Name the three types of ribs and how many there are of each?
True ribs: 1-7
False ribs: 8-10
Floating ribs: 11-12
Why is rib 1 the least likely to fracture?
It is protected by the clavicles.
How many pairs of ribs are there?
Name the types of joints?
What are the 2 types of cartilagenous joints?
Primary and secondary.
Give 2 examples of fibrous joints?
Syndesmoses: joins bones with fibrous sheet,(e.g. interosseous membrane)
Sutures: between the bones of the skull (e.g. coronal suture).
Give an example of a primary cartilaginous joint?
Bones joined by cartilage (e.g. epiphyseal growth plate).
Give an example of a secondary cartilaginous joint?
Name the 5 types of synovial joints?
Ball and socket
Reduced area of contact between articular surfaces.
Complete loss of contact between articular surfaces.
Some common dislocations?
Pubic symphysis (during pregnancy)
Why are anastamoses necessary in joints?
This ensures that blood supply continues throughout all movements of the joint, when the main artery is restricted.