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First Year Anatomy > Bones and Joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bones and Joints Deck (35):
1

What bones make up the axial skeleton?

Bones of the head neck and trunk.

2

What bones make up the appendicular skeleton?

Bones of the limbs, including those forming the pectoral and pelvic girdles.

3

What is the purpose of bones?

Protection for vital structure
Support for the body and its cavities Mechanical basis for movement
Storage for salts
Continuous supply of new blood cells.

4

What is the structure of bone?

Outer cortex
Ostions (longitudinally for support)
Inner medulla

5

What is the outermost covering of bone?

The periosteum

6

What is the periosteum?

A fibrous connective tissue sleeve that covers the bone.

7

Name the bones of the cranial vault?

Frontal
Sphenoid (left and right
Temporal (left and right)
Parietal (left and right)
Occipital

8

Name the bones of the facial skeleton?

Nasal (left and right)
Zygoma (left and right)
Maxilla
Mandible

9

How many vertebrae in total?

33

10

How many of each type of vertebrae?

7 x cervical
12 x thoracic
5 x lumbar
5 x sacral
4 x coccygeal

11

What is the largest vertebrae?

L5/S1

12

The thoracic and sacral curvatures are primary.
cervical and lumbar curves are secondary curvatures.
True or false?

True

13

Name the parts of a normal vertebrae?

Vertebral body
Vertebral arch
Seven processes

14

Name the 7 processes normally found on a vertebrae?

1 x median spinous process (projects posteriorly)
2 x transverse processes
4 x articular processes (2 x superior - larger- and 2 x inferior)

15

Where does the spinal cord pass through vertebrae?

Vertebral foramen

16

Name of C1 and why it is different?

Atlas
No spinous process or body, instead has an anterior and posterior arch.

17

Name C2 and why it is different?

Axis
Has an odontoid process which projects superiorly from the the vertebral body.

18

Name C7 and why it is different?

Vertebrae prominens
The first palpable spinous process (found midline of posterior aspect of the neck).

19

Each rib has a spongy interior containing what?

Bone marrow.

20

Each rib has a....?

Head
Neck
Tubercle
Body

21

On the inferior edge of each rib there is a groove protecting what?

Intercostal neurovascular bundles.

22

Name the three types of ribs and how many there are of each?

True ribs: 1-7
False ribs: 8-10
Floating ribs: 11-12

23

Why is rib 1 the least likely to fracture?

It is protected by the clavicles.

24

How many pairs of ribs are there?

12

25

Name the types of joints?

Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial

26

What are the 2 types of cartilagenous joints?

Primary and secondary.

27

Give 2 examples of fibrous joints?

Syndesmoses: joins bones with fibrous sheet,(e.g. interosseous membrane)
Sutures: between the bones of the skull (e.g. coronal suture).

28

Give an example of a primary cartilaginous joint?

Bones joined by cartilage (e.g. epiphyseal growth plate).

29

Give an example of a secondary cartilaginous joint?

Intervertebral discs.

30

Name the 5 types of synovial joints?

Plane
Biaxial
Hinge
Ball and socket
Pivot

31

Define subluxation?

Reduced area of contact between articular surfaces.

32

Define dislocation?

Complete loss of contact between articular surfaces.

33

Some common dislocations?

TMJ
Hip
Pubic symphysis (during pregnancy)
Elbow
Shoulder
Knee
Ankle

34

Why are anastamoses necessary in joints?

This ensures that blood supply continues throughout all movements of the joint, when the main artery is restricted.

35

What is the biggest concern of dislocations?

It dangerously compromising the blood flow distal to the joint.