Bones and Joints - Pre Practical Lecture COPY Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bones and Joints - Pre Practical Lecture COPY Deck (90):
1

Define epiphysis

The end part of a long bone

2

Define diaphysis

The central part of a long bone

3

Define metaphysis

The wide part of a long bone between the epiphysis and the narrow diaphysis. It contains the growth plate.

4

Define condyle

The smooth end of a bone that articulates (in a joint) with the condyle of an adjoining bone.

5

Deine epicondyle

A protuberance above or on the condyle of a long bone, allows for attachment to ligaments and muscles that act on the joint

6

What is a fossa?

A shallow depression

7

Define process?

Any projection or bump

8

Define Foramen?

Arperature

9

Define sulcus

A narrow groove

10

Define Tuberosity

A rough projection slightly bigger than a tubercule

11

Define tubercule

A small projection

12

Define spine

A pointed process

13

What cells are contained within bone marrow?

Adipose cells and Adipocytes

14

What is a suture?

Fibrous joint, Immovable joint, found in the skull, fuses after 20 years

15

What are gomphmoses?

Fibrous joint, Immovable joints, articulate the teeth with their sockets

16

What are syndemoses?

Fibrous joint, Slightly movable joints, held together by interroseous membrane,

17

What are the four types of bone?

Compact, spongy, epiphyseal growth plate (contains hyaline cartilage) Bone marrow

18

Describe primary cartilaginous (synchondroses) joint

Only Hyaline cartilage, immovable and temporary, (between epiphysis and diaphysis)

19

Describe a secondary cartilaginous (symphyses) joint

Contains fibrocartilage and Hyaline cartilage (midline of the body, intervertebral discs), doesn't ossify with age

20

Define joint cavity in synovial joint

Space between articulating bones lined with synovial membrane

21

Define joint capsule

Surrounds joint cavity

22

Define synovial membrane

Secretes synovial fluid which lubricates and nourishes the joint

23

Define articular cartilage

Hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of the articulating bones, covered with synovial fluid

24

Describe the different types of synovial joint (there are 6)

Hinge, pivot, condylar, saddle, ball and socket, plane

25

What is flexion?

Decreasing the angle of a joint

26

What is extension?

Increasing the angle of a joint

27

What is dorsiflexion?

Decreasing the angle of the ankle joint

28

What is plantarflexion?

Increasing the angle of the ankle joint

29

What is elevation?

Moving part of the body in the superior direction

30

What is depression?

Moving part of the body in an inferior direction

31

What is eversion?

Rotating the ankle so that the soul of the foot points away from the other

32

What is inversion?

The opposite of eversion

33

What is abduction?

Moving a limb away from the medial line of the body

34

What is adduction?

The opposite of abduction

35

What is lateral rotation?

Rotating a limb away from the medial line of the body

36

What is medial rotation

The opposite of lateral roatation

37

What is pronation?

Rotating the forearm so that the palm is facing down if the forearm is flexed

38

What is supination?

Palm up

39

What is retraction?

Posterior movement of the arm at the shoulder

40

What is protraction?

The opposite of retraction

41

What is lateral flexion?

Bending the spine to the side away from the medial line.

42

What is circumduction?

The combination of different movements around a joint

43

What does joint stability depend on?

Muscles, tendons, the fibrous capsule, the shape of articulating surfaces of the bones

44

What is the blood and nerve supply in joints like?

Rich

45

Why do blood vessels branch and reconnect around a blood vessel?

Stops the compression of the blood vessels and the restriction of blood flow

46

What sense are joints heavily influential in?

Proprioception

47

What is Hilton's law?

The nerve supplying a muscle that crosses a joint also innervates the joint

48

Define superior?

Closer the the head

49

Define inferior?

Closer to the feet

50

Define anterior

Nearer to the front

51

Define posterior

Nearer to the back

52

Define medial

Nearer to the medial plane

53

Define lateral

Further away from the medial plane

54

Define proxiaml

Nearer to the trunk or point of origin

55

Define distal

Further away from the trunk or point of origin

56

Define superficial

Nearer to, or on the surface

57

Define deep

Further away from the surface

58

Define palmar

Nearer to or on the the palm of the hand

59

Define plantar

Nearer to or on the soul of the foot

60

Define dorsal

Nearer to or on the back of the body or structure

61

Define Ventral

Nearer to or on the front of the body or structure

62

Define cranial or Rostral

Nearer to the head

63

Define caudal

Nearer to the feet

64

Define ipsilateral

On the same side of the body or structure

65

Define contralateral?

On the opposite side of the body or structure

66

What are the 5 body regions of the body?

Head and neck
Upper limbs
Lower Limbs
Thorax
Abdominal cavity

67

What are the 5 body cavities of the body?

Dorsal body cavity - Cranial and vertebral
Ventral body cavity - Thoracic (diaphragm separates)
Abdominal
Pelvic

68

Which germ layer does nerve tissue arise from ?

Ectoderm

69

Which germ layer gives origin to bone, cartilage and skeletal muscle?

Mesoderm

70

Which germ layer gives rise to the digestive tract and the lining of blood vessels?

Endoderm

71

Other than the epiphyseal growth plate where else is hyaline cartilage found in long bone?

Articular cartilage on the articulating surfaces of long bone

72

What tissue is found in the medullary cavity and what is its function?

Hematopoetic tissue - responsible for hematopoeisis

73

What does the axial skeleton refer to?

Bones situated on the long axis of the body in the anatomical position

74

What does the appendicular skeleton refer to?

Bones that are appended to the axial skeleton

75

What are limb girdles?

They surround and support proximal ends of the limbs. Provide a point of attachment for the appendicular bones to the axial bones.

76

Which two bones form the upper limb girdle

Scapula and the clavicle

77

Which three bones from the lower limb girdle?

Pubis, ilium and ischium

78

What is the function of compact bone?

Protection of cancellous bone - Structural support

79

What is the function of spongy bone?

Shock absorbing
Structural support
Facilitates the movement of joints and limbs

80

What is the function of the marrow cavity?

Production of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets

81

What is the function of the periosteum?

Attachment to tissue
Envelopes the bone except at the surface of joints

82

Where is the metaphysis?

Between the epiphysis and the diaphysis

83

Which tissue gives rise to appostitional bone growth?

The periosteum

84

Which tissue gives rise to the interstitial growth of a bone?

The epiphyseal growth plate

85

Give examples of the 5 types of bone

Long - humerus
Irregular bones - vertebra and mandible
Flat - Skull and ribs
Short - carpal and tarsal
Sesamoid bone - patella

86

What is the function of a condyle?

Articulates with other bone in a joint

87

Which structures attach to the epicondyles and tuberosities?

Ligaments and tendons

88

Which structure attaches to a spine?

Ligaments

89

What is intramembranous ossification?

When the embryological connective tissue membrane (mesenchyme) becomes replaced by bone.

Flat bones of the skull face and jaw and centre of clavivel

90

What is endochronal ossification?

Hyaline cartilage model becomes replaced by bone.

Forms long bones in the boy