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Flashcards in bones and muscles 4 Deck (49):
1

A freely moving joint in which movement is limited to rotation.
(ex: the articulation of the radius @ ulna in the arm)

Pivot Joints

2

(Gliding joint) Consists of 2 flat bone surfaces of about equal size between which a slight gliding motion can occur
(ex: articular processes between vertebrae)

Plane Joints

3

Master gland of the endocrine system
Located at base of brain, Size of pea.
It secretions control other endocrine glands @ influence growth, metabolism @ maturation.
Releases different hormones

Pituitary Gland

4

Movement of foot away from the body by bending ankle.
Opposite of dorsiflexion.
(Use it when you drive or stand on tiptoes, or stretch)

Plantar Flexion

5

Moving the mandible to either the right or left of the midline
(ex: grinding teeth, or chewing)

Lateral Excursion

6

Returns the mandible to the midline

Medial Excursion

7

Long multi-nucleated muscle cells that make up skeletal muscle.
Individual muscle fibers arranged in bundles (fascicles)

Muscle Fibers

8

Muscles of facial expression which draws the angle of mouth superiorly @
posteriorly (smile).
Draws lips upward.
Facial nerves supply triggers to muscle

Zygomaticus Major

9

3-Headed Muscle.
Large muscle on the back of upper limb.
Principally responsible for-extension of elbow joint.

Triceps Brachii

10

Flat muscle of the shoulder.
Extends shoulder, adducts medially
Rotates the arm

Teres Major

11

The cell membrane of a muscle cell. It has 2 layers.

Sarcolemma

12

A group of 3 pairs of muscles in the lateral neck.
Assist other muscles in neck flexion

Scalenes

13

A small nodule bone embedded in a tendon or joint capsule. Shape @ size of a sesame seed.

Sesamoid

14

Located at base of skull and basilar part of the occipital bone, in front of temporals.
Resembles a bat or butterfly with wings extended. Helps to form orbit

Spenoid (Bone)

15

A fibrocartilage joint between 2 bones.
A slightly moveable joint.

Symphysis

(ex: pubic syphysis- (line of union of the bodies of pubic bones in the median plane)

16

A form of articulation in which bones are rigidly fused by cartilage.
More stable and supportive

Synchondrosis

(ex: sternocostal joint where ribs meet sternum. Long bones-epiphyseal growth plates)

17

A form of fibrous joint in which surfaces that are relatively far apart are united by ligaments

Syndemosis

18

Present in many joints.
Lubricates @ nourishes certain parts of joints.
Brings oxygen @ nutrients to cartilage and other areas of joints.
Removes carbon dioxide @ waste products from cartilage
(ex: elbow, knee, shoulder and hip joints)

Synovial Fluid

19

A joint in which synovial fluid is present.

Synovial Joint

20

A chronic progressive disease causing inflammation in the joints.
Cause-Unknown
Autoimmune disease (bodies immune system attacks healthy tissue)

Rheumatoid Arthritis

21

Facts about Rheumatoid Arthritis

Can occur at any age.
More common in middle age.
Women get more than men.
Usually affects joints on both side of body equally.

22

Large muscles at front of thigh.
Divided into 4 distinct portions and act to extend the leg @ extend knee

Quadriceps

23

Made up of 4 Muscles
1. rectus femoris
2. vastus lateralis
3. vastus medialis
4. vastus intermedius
Extends knee @ flexes hip.

Quadriceps Femoris

24

A muscle that plays the major role in accomplishing the movement

Prime Mover

25

Constant tension produced by muscles for long periods of time.
Responsible for keeping the back @ lower limbs straight, the head upright, and abdomen flat.

Muscle Tone

26

Members of a group of muscles working together to produce a movement

Synergist

(ex: biceps brachii @ brachialis are synergists in elbow flexion.

27

Cavity on either side of the septum

Nasal

28

Facial muscle of nose.
A sphincter-like muscle whose function is to compress the nasal cartilage.
Responsible for flaring of nostrils.

Nasalis

29

A muscle which covers parts of the skull.
Consists of 2 parts or bellies.
Responsible for raising the eyebrows @ wrinkles forehead.

Occipital Frontalis

30

Movement of the thumb @ little finger.
Occurs when 2 digits are brought toward each other across the palm of the hand.
The thumb can also oppose the other digits, but those digits flex to touch the tip of thumb.

Opposition

31

Returns thumb @ little finger to neutral anatomical postiton.

Reposition

32

2 points of attachment of each muscle.
Also, called the fixed end, is usually the most stationary, proximal end of the muscle.

Origin
(also, called its insertion)

33

Order of Abdominal Muscles

FROM DEEP TO SUPERFICIAL
1. Transverse Abdominal
2. Internal obliques
3. External Obliques
4. Rectus Abdominis

34

Properties of Muscle Tissue

1. Contactility-Ability of muscle tissue to shorten @ contract forcefully.

2. Excitability-Ability to respond to stimulus.

3. Extensibility-Muscle stretch @ get longer.

4. Elasticity-Return to original shape.

35

Long band of muscle that stretches from the calf to pelvis.
It moves the thigh, and by extension, the leg.
Longest muscle in body.
Helps rotate leg into a sitting position (assumed by a tailor)

Sartorius (Muscle)

36

Part of the posterior thigh muscle called hamstring.
Located most medially @ used for flexing the knee joint, while extending the hip.
Secondary action- is to medially rotate knee, important for stability.

Semimembranosus (Muscle)

37

Muscle on back of thigh.
One of 3 muscles of hamstrings.
A long @ narrow muscle that stretches vertically from underside of pelvis to just below knee.
Responsible for-movements of hip @ knee joints.

Semitendonosus (Muscles)

38

Known as vertebral column or backbone.
Structure that encloses @ protects spinal cord.

Spine

39

Facts about Spine

Stack of 33 bones
Sacrum @ coccyx and invertebral discs separating the bones.
Subdivided into regions:
1. Cervical
2. Thoracic
3. Lumbar
4. Pelvic Region (Containing Sacrum @ Coccyx)- A SEPARATE ENTITY

40

Muscle located in back portion of neck.
Responsible for connecting vertebrae of the neck to base of skull.
Instrumental in allowing head @ neck to flex and rotate

Splenous Capitis (Muscle)

41

Edges of joined bone fit tightly together like puzzle pieces.
Can be found between various skull bones, which fit together along an uneven edge @ are held in place by special kind of fiber (Sharpey's Fibers).
A small amount of movement possible.

Suture Joint

42

Type of soft tissue found in certain joints.
Helps joints move more freely @ helps protect them from wear @ tear.

Synovial Membrane

43

Muscle located in skull.
Its job-To lift the mandible and allow jaw to close.
Located in temple area of head.

Temporalis (Muscle)

44

Muscle located in lower leg used for inverting @ dorsiflexing the foot.
Vital muscle in movements such as walking or running.
Located on front of shin.
One of primary actions is Dorsiflexing the foot-pulling foot upwards and holding it there.
Another action-Inverting the foot @ the ankle

Tibialis Anterior (Muscle)

45

Constant tension produced by muscles for long periods of time.
Responsible for keeping back, lower limbs straight, the head upright, and the abdomen flat.

Tone

46

Points of attachment of muscles, ligaments, and tendons.
Knob, larger than a tubercle.
Lump posterior to the last maxillary molar tooth.
A rounded bulge at the end of a bone, to which a muscle or tendon is attached

Tuberosity

47

Muscle movement can be explained in terms of actions of __________

Levers

48

Facts about Levers

A rigid shaft capable of turning about a hinge, or pivot joint called a fulcrum (F) and transferring a force applied at one point along the lever to a weight (W), or resistance, placed at another point along the lever. In the body, joints function as fulcrums and the bones function as levers. When muscles contract, the pull (P), or force of muscle contration is applied to the levers (bones), causing them to move. 3 classes of levers based on the relative positions of the levers, fulcrums, weights @ forces.

49

Kicking Football Muscles

GASTROCENEMIUS @ SOLEUS muscles(calf) extend the ankle, while muscles on front of the tibia(TIBIALIS ANTERIOR) control to hold ankle rigid.
Much of the power for kicking is the result of the contraction of the thigh muscles (QUADS).
Then swinging femur forward (hip flexion) The main muscle responsible for hip flexion are PSOSAS MAJOR, PSOSAS MINOR, ILIACUS.
To allow hip flexion your hamstrings must relax.
STABILIZER muscles hold the body stable while you kick. They include: RECTUS ABDOMINUS, SPINAE muscle (back muscle), your GLUTEUS MAXIMUS at the back of hip and inner and outer thigh muscles (ADDUCTOR AND ABDUCTOR) muscle hold femur in alignment