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Flashcards in Book Midterm Deck (28):
1

Cells become specialized through the process of _______________ or __________

Differentiation or maturation

2

What are the 8 specialized cellular functions?

1. Movement
2. Conductivity
3. Metabolic absorption
4. Secretion
5. Excretion
6. Respiration
7. Reproduction
8. Communication

3

The eukaryotic cell consists of what 3 general components?

1. Plasma membrane
2. Cytoplasm
3. Intracellular organelles

4

The _______ is the largest membrane bound organelle

Nucleus

5

What is usually found in the cells center?

Nucleus

6

What are the chief functions of the nucleus?

Cell division and control of genetic information

7

Cytoplasm or the cytoplasmic matrix is an aqueous solution (cytosol) that fills the space between the _______ and the ______ ________

Nucleus and the plasma membrane

8

The organelles are suspended in the _________ and are enclosed in ________ _________

Cytoplasm and enclosed in biologic membranes

9

The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubular channels (cisternae) that extend throughout the _____ _______ ________. It specializes in the synthesis and transport of _______ and _____ components of most of the organelles

-Outer nuclear membrane
- Protein and Lipid

10

The _____ _______ is a network of smooth membranes and vesicles located near the nucleus

Golgi complex

11

What is responsible for processing and packaging proteins into secretory vesicles that break away from the golgi complex and migrate to a variety of intracellular and extracellular destinations, including the plasma membrane

Golgi complex

12

Sac like structures that originate from the golgi complex and contain digestive enzymes

Lysosomes

13

The enzymes in lysosomes are responsible for _________ most cellular substances to their basic form such as amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates

Digesting

14

Cellular injury leads to a release of the lysosomal enzymes, causing _______ ____ _________

Cellular self digestion

15

Peroxisomes are similar to lysosomes, but contain several enzymes that either produce or use ________ ________

Hydrogen peroxide

16

The cytoskeleton is the ____ and ______ of the cell

Bone and muscle

17

The internal skeleton is composed of a network of _______ _________ including microtubules and actin filaments

Protein filaments

18

The plasma membrane encloses the cell and, by controlling the movement of substances across it, exerts a powerful influence on _________ _________. Principles of membrane structure are being overhauled

Metabolic pathways

19

________ are the major workhorses of the cell

Proteins

20

Membrane proteins, like other proteins, are synthesized by the ________ and then make their way, called trafficking, to different locations in the cell

Ribosome

21

Trafficking places unique demands on membrane proteins for:

Folding, translocation, and stability

22

Misifolded proteins are emerging as an important cause of ________

Disease

23

Protein regulation in a cell is called _______ ___________ and is defined b the proteostasis network

Protein homeostasis

24

The proteostasis network is composed of:

Ribosomes (makers), chaperones (helpers), and protein breakdown or proteolytic systems

25

Malfunction of ___________ _______ is associated with disease

Proteolytic systems

26

Carbohydrates contained within the plasma membrane are generally bound to ________ ________ and ______

Membrane proteints (glycoproteins) and lipids (glycolipids)

27

_______ _________ on the plasma membrane enable the cell to interact with other cells and with extracellular substances

Protein receptors

28

Membrane functions are determined largely by proteins. These functions include:

Recognition by protein receptors and transport of substances into and out of the cell