Flashcards in Bordeaux Deck (72):
What does INAO stand for, when was it created and why?
Institut National des Appellations d'Origine. Created in 1935 to delimit and enforce France’s wine appellation system.
It stipulates limits on yields, vineyard density, training and pruning techniques, grape varietals, methods of production, minimum alcohol levels, minimum must weights, and the geographical boundaries of each appellation. AOC wines must pass a tasting panel.
What's the new name of the INAO?
L’Institut National de l’Origine et de la Qualité. It retains INAO, though.
Which category did the INAO eliminate in 2011?
Most of the VDQS wines advanced to AOP/AOC status.
Table wine is known as what in France? What changes were made with the 2009 vintage?
Vin de France. The wines can now use acidification and oak chips.
Vin de Pays wines could use what instead on their label?
Indication Géographique Protégée (IGP)
What is the climate of Bordeaux?
Bordeaux AOP wine may be what color?
Red, white, rosé, or clairet—a darker, more aromatic style of rosé that evokes the original claret wines shipped to England in the Middle Ages.
What soil does Merlot prefer?
What soil does Cabernet Sauvignon prefer?
What soil does Cabernet Franc prefer?
What are the first and last grapes to ripen in Bdx?
Merlot is first, Petit Verdot is last.
What is a synonym for Malbec on the Right Bank?
In Bordeaux AOP whites, max 30% can be which grapes?
Ugni Blanc, Colombard, Merlot blanc
Red and off-dry white wines with a higher minimum alcohol content may qualify for which AOP?
Bordeaux Supérieur AOP
What color are Médoc AOP wines?
What color are Haut-Médoc AOP wines?
Château Margaux, Margaux
Château Haut-Brion, Graves
Château Lafite Rothschild, Pauillac
Château Latour, Pauillac
Château Mouton Rothschild, Pauillac: Originally classified as a second growth, the estate was elevated in 1973
Château Cos d'Estournel, Saint-Estèphe
Château Montrose, Saint-Estèphe
Château Pichon Longueville Baron, Pauillac
Château Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande, Pauillac
Château Léoville-Las Cases, Saint-Julien
Château Léoville-Poyferré, Saint-Julien
Château Léoville Barton, Saint-Julien
Château Gruaud-Larose, Saint-Julien
Château Ducru-Beaucaillou, Saint-Julien
Château Rauzan-Ségla, Margaux
Château Rauzan-Gassies, Margaux
Château Durfort-Vivens, Margaux
Château Lascombes, Margaux
Château Brane-Cantenac, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
NONE IN PAUILLAC
Château Calon-Ségur, Saint-Estèphe
Château Lagrange, Saint-Julien
Château Langoa Barton, Saint-Julien
Château Malescot-Saint-Exupéry, Margaux
Château Desmirail, Margaux
Château Ferrière, Margaux
Château Marquis d'Alesme Becker, Margaux
Château Kirwan, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château d'Issan, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Boyd-Cantenac, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Cantenac-Brown, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Palmer, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Giscours, Labarde-Margaux (Margaux)
Château La Lagune, Ludon (Haut-Medoc)
Château Lafon-Rochet, Saint-Estèphe
Château Duhart-Milon-Rothschild, Pauillac
Château Saint-Pierre, Saint-Julien
Château Talbot, Saint-Julien
Château Branaire-Ducru, Saint-Julien
Château Beychevelle, Saint-Julien
Château Marquis de Terme, Margaux
Château Pouget, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Prieuré-Lichine, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château La Tour Carnet, Saint-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)
Château Cos Labory, Saint-Estèphe
Château Pontet-Canet, Pauillac
Château Batailley, Pauillac
Château Haut-Batailley, Pauillac
Château Haut-Bages-Libéral, Pauillac
Château Grand-Puy-Lacoste, Pauillac
Château Grand-Puy-Ducasse, Pauillac
Château Lynch-Bages, Pauillac
Château Lynch-Moussas, Pauillac
Château d'Armailhac, Pauillac: This estate was known as Mouton-Baronne-Philippe from 1933-1988.
Château Pédesclaux, Pauillac
Château Clerc-Milon, Pauillac
Château Croizet Bages, Pauillac
Château Dauzac, Labarde (Margaux)
Château du Tertre, Arsac (Margaux)
Château Belgrave, Saint-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)
Château de Camensac, Saint-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)
Château Cantemerle, Macau (Haut-Médoc)
Cru Bourgeois was first introduced in 1932, later nullified, then reinstated in 2008. What does it do now?
The term acts as a guarantor of quality and châteaux must apply for it regularly, submitting their wines to a blind tasting panel.
Cru Artisan is a designation used for what (it was formally recognized in 2002)?
44 small producers throughout the Médoc who are recognized as exceptional stewards of the land and craft of winemaking, without the financing or apparatus of large-scale operations.
Where is Château Chasse-Spleen?
Moulis-en-Médoc. It is not a designated growth.
What are the 5 villages of Margaux?
The soil in Graves is boulbenes. What is that?
A mixture of sand, gravel and light clay
Graves AOP produces what color wines?
Red and white only
What are the 4 Saint-Emilion Premier Grand Cru Classé As?
What are the 10 communes of Pessac-Léognan AOP?
Graves Supérieur AOP can produce what kind of wine?
Sweet white made from SB, Sém, Muscadelle and/or Sauvignon Gris. Min 34 g/L RS. Grapes are affected by botrytis and/or passerillage.
What is Botrytis cinerea aka in Bdx?
What are the 5 villages of Sauternes AOP?
The wines of Barsac may be sold as either:
Barsac AOP or Sauternes AOP
Cérons, Barsac and Sauternes all have a minimum must weight of ___g/L and minimum RS of __g/L.
221g/L must weight
Château Figeac has a lot of what grape in its assemblage?
In Saint-Emilion, the limestone slopes are called ___ and the gravelly limestone plateau is called ____.
côtes and graves
Wines labeled St-Émilion Grand Cru are required to show or do what?
Must show an additional + 0.5% alcohol, must undergo a longer élevage than wines simply labeled St-Émilion AOP, and they must be estate bottled.
What is Cab Franc aka in Pomerol?
Name a few of the best Pomerol houses.
Château Le Pin
What are the 4 satellite appellations for St-Émilion?
Which 3 sweet wine appellations are on the east side of the Garonne and which 3 sweet wine appellations are on the west side of the Garonne?
East Side (they may or may not be affected by Botrytis)
Ste. Croix du Mont
What are the sub-zones of Côtes de Bordeaux AOP? As of which vintage can they be listed on the label?
Francs, Cadillac, Castillon, Blaye
Lalande-de-Pomerol AOP contains which 2 communes?
What is the most widely planted grape in Bdx? When does it ripen?
It is the earliest to ripen and it prefers clay-based soils (delays its natural vigor).
Cab Sauv prefers what kind of soil?
Well drained gravel.
Gravel allows roots to dig deep; stress adds concentration of fruit.
Cab Franc prefers what kind of soil?
It promotes acidity and freshness.
What are 3 secondary white grapes in Bdx AOP?
- max 30%
What are the drainage channels in Bdx called?
They criss-cross the low lying, remote landscape of the Médoc.
What red grape is grown in high proportion in the Médoc? Why?
It performs well on the clay-heavy soils.
In which vintages has d'Yquem NOT made (or declassified) their Sauternes?
1910, 1915, 1930, 1951, 1952, 1964, 1972, 1974, 1992 and 2012
Sauternes lies at the conflux of which two rivers?
- Cool morning mists off Ciron hit warmer waters of Garonne producing afternoon humidity
When was the sub-app Pessac-Léognan created?
When were Graves wines first classified?
1953; additional wines were added in 1959.
Today 13 estates are classified for red, 9 for white.
Who commissioned the 1855 classification?
Emperor Napoleon III
Carried out by the region's brokers
The wines were characterized by prices fetched
What is the soil of Pomerol?
Sand, clay and gravel with a subsoil of iron-rich clay.
What is Crasse de Fer?
Rich clay soil
Where are the oldest vines in Bdx?
Bourg and Côtes de Bourg
Romans brought viticulture to Bourg's limestone slopes.
When did St.-Émilion create its own 3-tier ranking system?
Revisions made in 1969, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2012
2012 St.-Émilion classifications - how many in each?
1er Cru Classé A - 4
1er Cru Classé B - 14
Grand Cru Classé - 64
St.-Émilion Grand Cru AOP is an appellation or a classification?
Wines labeled St.-Émilion Grand Cru are required to show an addt'l 0.5%abv and must undergo a longer élévage than wines simply labeled St.-Émilion AOP.
Can St.-Émilion have Petit Verdot in it?
Yes, max 10%
Two soil types in St.-Émilion?
Côtes - hillside/steep slopes made of limestone
Graves - gravelly limestone plateau resembling soils of Médoc
Sauternes and Barsac are aged in cask for up to:
1855 Classification of Whites - 1er Cru Supérieur
1855 Classification of Whites - 1er Cru (9)
1855 Classification of Whites - 2ème Crus (10)
What is the Place de Bordeaux?
A three-tier, de facto system of wine production, brokerage, and sales that controls the trade of wine in Bordeaux.
Which château has decided to opt out of the en primeur campaign from the 2012 vintage onward?
What trellising system is common in Bdx?
Guyot - single on on Right bank, double on Left bank
Which two properties in Bdx are embracing biodynamics?
Château Pontet-Canet and Château Climens
On a wine label “Saint-Émilion Grand Cru” indicates an appellation; “Saint-Émilion Grand Cru Classé” indicates a classified producer within that appellation.