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Flashcards in Bordeaux Deck (72):
1

What does INAO stand for, when was it created and why?

Institut National des Appellations d'Origine. Created in 1935 to delimit and enforce France’s wine appellation system.

It stipulates limits on yields, vineyard density, training and pruning techniques, grape varietals, methods of production, minimum alcohol levels, minimum must weights, and the geographical boundaries of each appellation. AOC wines must pass a tasting panel.

2

What's the new name of the INAO?

L’Institut National de l’Origine et de la Qualité. It retains INAO, though.

3

Which category did the INAO eliminate in 2011?

VDQS

Most of the VDQS wines advanced to AOP/AOC status.

4

Table wine is known as what in France? What changes were made with the 2009 vintage?

Vin de France. The wines can now use acidification and oak chips.

5

Vin de Pays wines could use what instead on their label?

Indication Géographique Protégée (IGP)

6

What is the climate of Bordeaux?

Maritime

7

Bordeaux AOP wine may be what color?

Red, white, rosé, or clairet—a darker, more aromatic style of rosé that evokes the original claret wines shipped to England in the Middle Ages.

8

What soil does Merlot prefer?

Clay based

9

What soil does Cabernet Sauvignon prefer?

Gravel

10

What soil does Cabernet Franc prefer?

Limestone based

11

What are the first and last grapes to ripen in Bdx?

Merlot is first, Petit Verdot is last.

12

What is a synonym for Malbec on the Right Bank?

Pressac

13

In Bordeaux AOP whites, max 30% can be which grapes?

Ugni Blanc, Colombard, Merlot blanc

14

Red and off-dry white wines with a higher minimum alcohol content may qualify for which AOP?

Bordeaux Supérieur AOP

15

What color are Médoc AOP wines?

Red only

16

What color are Haut-Médoc AOP wines?

Red only

17

First Growths

Château Margaux, Margaux
Château Haut-Brion, Graves
Château Lafite Rothschild, Pauillac
Château Latour, Pauillac
Château Mouton Rothschild, Pauillac: Originally classified as a second growth, the estate was elevated in 1973

18

Second Growths

Château Cos d'Estournel, Saint-Estèphe
Château Montrose, Saint-Estèphe
Château Pichon Longueville Baron, Pauillac
Château Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande, Pauillac
Château Léoville-Las Cases, Saint-Julien
Château Léoville-Poyferré, Saint-Julien
Château Léoville Barton, Saint-Julien
Château Gruaud-Larose, Saint-Julien
Château Ducru-Beaucaillou, Saint-Julien
Château Rauzan-Ségla, Margaux
Château Rauzan-Gassies, Margaux
Château Durfort-Vivens, Margaux
Château Lascombes, Margaux
Château Brane-Cantenac, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)

19

Third Growths

NONE IN PAUILLAC
Château Calon-Ségur, Saint-Estèphe
Château Lagrange, Saint-Julien
Château Langoa Barton, Saint-Julien
Château Malescot-Saint-Exupéry, Margaux
Château Desmirail, Margaux
Château Ferrière, Margaux
Château Marquis d'Alesme Becker, Margaux
Château Kirwan, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château d'Issan, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Boyd-Cantenac, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Cantenac-Brown, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Palmer, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Giscours, Labarde-Margaux (Margaux)
Château La Lagune, Ludon (Haut-Medoc)

20

Fourth Growths

Château Lafon-Rochet, Saint-Estèphe
Château Duhart-Milon-Rothschild, Pauillac
Château Saint-Pierre, Saint-Julien
Château Talbot, Saint-Julien
Château Branaire-Ducru, Saint-Julien
Château Beychevelle, Saint-Julien
Château Marquis de Terme, Margaux
Château Pouget, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Prieuré-Lichine, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château La Tour Carnet, Saint-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)

21

Fifth Growths

NO SAINT-JULIEN
Château Cos Labory, Saint-Estèphe
Château Pontet-Canet, Pauillac
Château Batailley, Pauillac
Château Haut-Batailley, Pauillac
Château Haut-Bages-Libéral, Pauillac
Château Grand-Puy-Lacoste, Pauillac
Château Grand-Puy-Ducasse, Pauillac
Château Lynch-Bages, Pauillac
Château Lynch-Moussas, Pauillac
Château d'Armailhac, Pauillac: This estate was known as Mouton-Baronne-Philippe from 1933-1988.
Château Pédesclaux, Pauillac
Château Clerc-Milon, Pauillac
Château Croizet Bages, Pauillac
Château Dauzac, Labarde (Margaux)
Château du Tertre, Arsac (Margaux)
Château Belgrave, Saint-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)
Château de Camensac, Saint-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)
Château Cantemerle, Macau (Haut-Médoc)

22

Cru Bourgeois was first introduced in 1932, later nullified, then reinstated in 2008. What does it do now?

The term acts as a guarantor of quality and châteaux must apply for it regularly, submitting their wines to a blind tasting panel.

23

Cru Artisan is a designation used for what (it was formally recognized in 2002)?

44 small producers throughout the Médoc who are recognized as exceptional stewards of the land and craft of winemaking, without the financing or apparatus of large-scale operations.

24

Where is Château Chasse-Spleen?

Moulis-en-Médoc. It is not a designated growth.

25

What are the 5 villages of Margaux?

Soussans
Margaux
Cantenac
Labarde
Arsac

26

The soil in Graves is boulbenes. What is that?

A mixture of sand, gravel and light clay

27

Graves AOP produces what color wines?

Red and white only

28

What are the 4 Saint-Emilion Premier Grand Cru Classé As?

Ausone
Cheval Blanc
Angélus
Pavie

29

What are the 10 communes of Pessac-Léognan AOP?

Pessac
Léognan
Cadaujac
Canéjan
Gradignan
Martillac
Mérignac
Saint-Médard-d'Eyrans
Talence
Villenave-d'Ornons

30

Graves Supérieur AOP can produce what kind of wine?

Sweet white made from SB, Sém, Muscadelle and/or Sauvignon Gris. Min 34 g/L RS. Grapes are affected by botrytis and/or passerillage.

31

What is Botrytis cinerea aka in Bdx?

pourriture noble

32

What are the 5 villages of Sauternes AOP?

Sauternes
Barsac
Fargues
Preignac
Bommes

33

The wines of Barsac may be sold as either:

Barsac AOP or Sauternes AOP

34

Cérons, Barsac and Sauternes all have a minimum must weight of ___g/L and minimum RS of __g/L.

221g/L must weight
45g/L RS

35

Château Figeac has a lot of what grape in its assemblage?

Cabernet Sauvignon

36

In Saint-Emilion, the limestone slopes are called ___ and the gravelly limestone plateau is called ____.

côtes and graves

37

Wines labeled St-Émilion Grand Cru are required to show or do what?

Must show an additional + 0.5% alcohol, must undergo a longer élevage than wines simply labeled St-Émilion AOP, and they must be estate bottled.

38

What is Cab Franc aka in Pomerol?

Bouchet

39

Name a few of the best Pomerol houses.

Château Pétrus
Vieux-Château-Certan
Château Lafleur
Château Le Pin
Château Trotanoy

40

What are the 4 satellite appellations for St-Émilion?

Lussac
St-Georges
Montagne
Puisseguin

41

Which 3 sweet wine appellations are on the east side of the Garonne and which 3 sweet wine appellations are on the west side of the Garonne?

East Side (they may or may not be affected by Botrytis)
Cadillac
Loupiac
Ste. Croix du Mont

West Side
Cérons
Barsac
Sauternes

42

What are the sub-zones of Côtes de Bordeaux AOP? As of which vintage can they be listed on the label?

Francs, Cadillac, Castillon, Blaye
2008

43

Lalande-de-Pomerol AOP contains which 2 communes?

Lalande-de-Pomerol
Néac

44

What is the most widely planted grape in Bdx? When does it ripen?

Merlot
It is the earliest to ripen and it prefers clay-based soils (delays its natural vigor).

45

Cab Sauv prefers what kind of soil?

Well drained gravel.
Gravel allows roots to dig deep; stress adds concentration of fruit.

46

Cab Franc prefers what kind of soil?

Limestone based.
It promotes acidity and freshness.

47

What are 3 secondary white grapes in Bdx AOP?

Ugni Blanc
Merlot Blanc
Colombard
- max 30%

48

What are the drainage channels in Bdx called?

Jalles
They criss-cross the low lying, remote landscape of the Médoc.

49

What red grape is grown in high proportion in the Médoc? Why?

Merlot
It performs well on the clay-heavy soils.

50

In which vintages has d'Yquem NOT made (or declassified) their Sauternes?

1910, 1915, 1930, 1951, 1952, 1964, 1972, 1974, 1992 and 2012

51

Sauternes lies at the conflux of which two rivers?

Ciron
Garonne
- Cool morning mists off Ciron hit warmer waters of Garonne producing afternoon humidity

52

When was the sub-app Pessac-Léognan created?

1987

53

When were Graves wines first classified?

1953; additional wines were added in 1959.
Today 13 estates are classified for red, 9 for white.

54

Who commissioned the 1855 classification?

Emperor Napoleon III
Carried out by the region's brokers
The wines were characterized by prices fetched

55

What is the soil of Pomerol?

Sand, clay and gravel with a subsoil of iron-rich clay.

56

What is Crasse de Fer?

Rich clay soil

57

Where are the oldest vines in Bdx?

Bourg and Côtes de Bourg
Romans brought viticulture to Bourg's limestone slopes.

58

When did St.-Émilion create its own 3-tier ranking system?

1954
Revisions made in 1969, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2012

59

2012 St.-Émilion classifications - how many in each?

1er Cru Classé A - 4
1er Cru Classé B - 14
Grand Cru Classé - 64

60

St.-Émilion Grand Cru AOP is an appellation or a classification?

Appellation

Wines labeled St.-Émilion Grand Cru are required to show an addt'l 0.5%abv and must undergo a longer élévage than wines simply labeled St.-Émilion AOP.

61

Can St.-Émilion have Petit Verdot in it?

Yes, max 10%

62

Two soil types in St.-Émilion?

Côtes - hillside/steep slopes made of limestone

Graves - gravelly limestone plateau resembling soils of Médoc

63

Sauternes and Barsac are aged in cask for up to:

3 years

64

1855 Classification of Whites - 1er Cru Supérieur

d'Yquem

65

1855 Classification of Whites - 1er Cru (9)

Labour Blanche
Peyraguey
Vigneau
Suduiraut
Coutet
Climens
Bayle
Rieusec
Rabeaud

66

1855 Classification of Whites - 2ème Crus (10)

Mìrat
Doisy
Pexoto
D'Arche
Filhot
Broustet Nérac
Caillou
Malle
Romer
Lamothe

67

What is the Place de Bordeaux?

A three-tier, de facto system of wine production, brokerage, and sales that controls the trade of wine in Bordeaux.

68

Which château has decided to opt out of the en primeur campaign from the 2012 vintage onward?

Château Latour

69

What trellising system is common in Bdx?

Guyot - single on on Right bank, double on Left bank

70

Which two properties in Bdx are embracing biodynamics?

Château Pontet-Canet and Château Climens

71

On a wine label “Saint-Émilion Grand Cru” indicates an appellation; “Saint-Émilion Grand Cru Classé” indicates a classified producer within that appellation.

True.

72

What is the area of deep blue clay called at Pomerol’s highest and easternmost point (where Château Pétrus is)?

Buttonière