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Flashcards in Bordeaux - Advanced Deck (141):
1

What are the five First Growths and where are they?

Ch. Lafite Rothschild, Pauillac

Ch. Mouton Rothschild, Pauillac

Ch. Latour, Pauillac

Ch. Margaux, Margaux

Ch. Haut-Brion, Graves

2

What are Bordeaux's most planted white and red varietals?

White - Semillon

Red - Merlot

3

What are the top vintages of Bordeaux (Left Bank) in the 2000s? (Best to worst)

2009, 2005, 2010, 2000

4

What are the top vintages of Bordeaux (Right Bank) in the 2000s? (Best to worst)

2009, 2010, 2005, 2015, 2016, 2012, 2001, 2006

5

What is the difference between encepagement and assemblage?

Encepagement - Makeup of the vineyard.

Assemblage - Makeup of the blend of wine

6

What is the name of the canals that the Dutch created in order to drain the Medoc?

Jalles

7

When was the first appearance of Ch. Haut-Brion found in text?

1660

8

What diseases plagued Bordeaux, where were they from, and when did they arrive?

Oidium, Phylloxera and Peronospera - All American in origin

Oidium (Powdery Mildew) - 1852 in the sweet wine vineyards along the Garonne, quickly migrated to the Medoc. Crippled yields and in 1854 - France harvested its smallest vintage since the late 1700s. Application of sulfur in the vineyards mitigated the damage.

Phylloxera - 1869 - Took hold by the late 1870s and caused widespread ruin.

Peronospera (Downy Mildew) - Struck with Phylloxera in the early 1880s 

1888 - Bordeaux mixture - a copper sulfate-lime concoction created to defend the vines.

9

What are considered to be some of the "vintages of the century?"

2000, 2005, 2009, 2010

10

What is the only current classified chateau to embrace biodynamic practices in all of Bordeaux?

Ch. Climense

11

What are the communes of Margaux?

Cantenac

Labarde

Arsac

Margaux

Soussans

12

What are the communes of Pauillac?

Pauillac

Cissac-Médoc

Saint-Estephe

Saint-Julien-Beychevelle

Saint-Sauveur

13

What are the communes of Saint-Estephe?

Saint-Estephe

14

What are the communes of Saint-Julien?

Cussac-Fort-Médoc

Saint-Laurent-Médoc

Pauillac

Saint-Julien-Beychevelle

15

What is the difference between Graves AOP and Graves Superieur AOP?

Graves AOP - allows dry red and dry white production.

Graves Superieur AOP - authorizes only sweet white production, with most appellation wines finishing around 40-50 g/L of residual sugar

16

What larger appellation are the sweet wine appellations within and what are their names?

Graves.

 

Sauternes

Barsac

Cerons

17

What are the communes of Sauternes?

Barsac

Bommes

Fargues

Preignac

Sauternes

18

What are the communes of Cerons?

Cerons

Podensac

Illats

19

What is Chateau d'Yquem's Bordeaux blanc called? (Occasionally Superieur blanc)

Ygrec - First debuted in 1959 and was made intermittently until 2004, when production commenced annually.

20

What is the method of harvesting in Sauternes called?

tries - multiple hand-harvested passes through the vineyards - very expensive.

21

Sauternes is situated at the confluence of which two rivers? Why does this matter?

The Ciron and the Garonne

It encourages the development of morning mists and humidity in the early autumn - conditions ripe for botrytis

22

What are the two red wine-only appellations of Saint-Emillion? What is unique about the appellation's boundaries?

Saint-Emilion AOP (1936)

Saint-Emilion Grand Cru AOP (1954)

They share the exact same geographical boundaries.

Saint-Emilion Grand Cru AOP - wines must be estate-bottled, unlike the basic Saint-Emilion AOP, which can be blended and bottled by a negociant.

Additionally, there are lower maximum yields and a longer elevage required for the Grand Cru category. While they share exact geographical boundaries, most Grand Cru estates are located on the limestone cotes and plateau rather than in the river plain.

On a wine label, "Saint-Émilion Grand Cru" indicates an appellation;

"Saint-Émilion Grand Cru classé" indicates a classified producer within that appellation

23

What year was the "great winter" that was so devastating to Bordeaux?

1956 Crippled or killed many existing vines.

24

Describe the budding and ripening of Merlot and what it is susceptible to.

Merlot is early-budding and early-ripening. Thin skins in comparison to Cabernet Sauvignon. Prone to rot and coulure from the early season spring frosts. It's chief disadvantage in Bordeaux's seemingly warmer modern climate is its rush to produce sugar; in warm years like 2009 or 2010 Merlot can easily hit 16% in potential alcohol.

25

How many hectoliters and what percentage of wine does Bordeaux contribute to the total production of French wine?

14% 5-6 million hectoliters (as of 2011)

26

What are the two rivers that are associated with Bordeaux and where are they located? What is the estuary? Where does it split?

Garonne (West)

Dordogne (East)

Gironde Estuary Splits between Margaux and Cotes de Bourg

27

What is the largest mitigating factor to the climate of Bordeaux? What type of climate?

Atlantic Ocean funneled inland by the Gironde Estuary. Maritime Climate warm summers and cool winters

28

What is unique about the annual rainfall in Bordeaux?

Relatively evenly dispersed throughout the year, driest months July and August

29

Why is rainfall a challenge at harvest and in springtime in Bordeaux?

Spring time - rain can interrupt flowering, reducing yield and inviting rot

Harvest - Washed out

30

What is Bordeaux considered on the Winkler Scale?

Region II - average temperatures in August (the hottest month) reach 26C

31

Bordeaux AOP - Red Varietals

Merlot

Cabernet Sauvignon

Cabernet Franc

Petit Verdot

Malbec

Carmenère

32

Bordeaux AOP - White Varietals

Sémillon

Sauvignon Blanc (and Gris)

Muscadelle

Far less common: Ugni Blanc, Merlot Blanc, Colombard

33

What is Bordeaux's insurance policy against it's at times, volatile climate?

Multiple varietals - each buds and matures at different schedules

34

What are the genetic parents of Cabernet Sauvignon?

Cabernet Franc

Sauvignon Blanc

35

What offspring is Cabernet Franc responsible for besides Cabernet Sauvignon?

Merlot

Carmènere

36

What is the common genetic parent of Merlot and Malbec, making them half-siblings?

The rare Magdeleine Noire des Charentes

37

What is responsible for the green notes - bell pepper, grass, sage found in Cabernet Franc, Carmènere, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc?

2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine

Pyrazine

38

Merlot Budding and ripening? Favored Soil? Viticulture? Skin? Dangers?

Early to bud, early to ripen (two weeks earlier than Cabernet Sauvignon)

Cool soils like clay to restrain ripening

Severe pruning

Thin skin Prone to rot and coulure - less susceptible to wood-rotting diseases like Eutypa dieback and esca than Cabernet vines.

Rushes to produce sugar - riper years pushes 16% in alcohol

39

Merlot Palate

Lush blue and plum fruit

Expansive mid-palate

Warmth of alcohol

Can be tannic

40

Cabernet Sauvignon Budding and ripening? Favored Soil? Skin?

Late to bud, Late to ripen?

Warm gravel soils

Thick skin allow to resist rot more successfully than Merlot and is armor against the rain

Tannic, phenolic grape

41

Cabernet Franc attributes in Bordeaux

Adds acidity and aromatics to Merlot

42

Where did Malbec get it's name?

A grower named Malbec brought the grape, then known as Pressac Noir, from the right bank to the left, and gave it it's modern name

43

What does Petit Verdot do to the Bordeaux blend?

Rarely exceeds 5%

Adds color, exotic spice, floral perfume, and tannic backbone to Cabernet Sauvignon-based blends.

44

Semillion attributes in Bordeaux

Thin-skinned Prone to botrytis - the variety of choice for dessert wines in Bordeaux

In dry wines, waxy and rich, often blended with Sauvignon Blanc as foil to the pungent aromas and high acidity

45

Sauvignon Blanc attributes in Bordeaux

Rich, barrel-aged or

Racy, grassy wines

46

What three AOPs apply to the entire area of Bordeaux?

Bordeaux AOP

Bordeaux Supérieur AOP

Crémant de Bordeaux AOP

47

Who is the natural wine producer on the outskirts of the right bank petitioning the INAO to grant it AOP status?

Chateau le Puy

48

What are rose wines produced from in Bordeaux?

Red grapes only - blending white and red is not authorized

49

What are the elevage differences between Bordeaux Supérieur AOP and Bordeaux AOP for red wines?

Bordeaux Supérieur AOP - red wines undergo elevage until mid-June of the year following harvest

Bordeaux AOP - reds can be sold by mid-January

50

Cremant de Bordeaux AOP

Generic outlet for white and rose sparkling wines in Bordeaux, made in the traditional method and aged for at least nine months on the lees.

51

What is the Vin de Pays of Bordeaux?

Antlantique IGP

Spans five departments

Gironde, Cognac-producing Charente and Charente-Maritime, Dordogne, and the western part of Lot-et-Garonne

52

When did Bordeaux fall back into the hands of the French?

1453 - after the Battle of Castillon of the Hundred Years' War

53

When was the introduction of selling Bordeaux by a brand name?

17th century. Chateau Haut-Brion appears in the cellar notes of King Charles II as early as 1660

54

What year was Mouton classified as a first growth?

1973

55

What were the great vintages in Bordeaux in the 1940s?

1945 1947 1949

56

What is sur souches?

Pricing based on previous vintages

agreed upon prior to harvest

57

What was the first chateaux to begin estate-bottling its entire production?

Mouton-Rothschild

1924

58

What year marked the standard of chateau bottling for classified estates in the Medoc?

1972

59

What is the Place de Bordeaux?

A three-tier de facto system of wine production, brokerage, and sales that controls the trade of wine in Bordeaux

60

What are the three tiers of the Place de Bordeaux?

Chateau

Negociant

Courtier

61

Who was the first and only key producer to opt out of en premieur and when?

Chateau Latour

2012 vintage

62

What is the common method of vine training in Bordeaux?

Guyot - this method invites Grey Rot

63

What method of vine training is common for sweet wines in Bordeaux?

Cordon - produce smaller berries that attract botrytis

64

Why is de-leafing important in Bordeaux?

Due to the heat and rain, de-leafing allows for the grapes to get the ventilation they need from the humid late summer and early fall

65

Who is the only classified and certified biodynamicic producer in the entire Medoc?

Pontet Canet

66

What is an optical sorter?

Sorting machine that allows a producer to automatically reject fruit that does not meet a certain dolor quality and size

67

What is a density sorter?

Sorting machine in which grapes are run through a sugar-water solution. Those denser than the solution (and therefore ripe enough to appear in a grand vin) sink and are selected; those that float are rejected.

68

What is the typical elevage for red wine in Bordeaux?

18-24 months

69

What is cliquage? What is it used for?

A form of micro-oxygenation occuring during elevage in which small doses of oxygen are applied to the finished wine in barrel. 

Advocates say that it can counter reduction invited through batonnage

Critics say that it produces short-term gain at the expense of long-term stability

70

What is the name of the manmade forest within the Medoc that helps shield the region's vineyards from Atlantic weather and winds?

Landes Forest

71

What are the eight AOPs in the Medoc?

Medoc

Haut-Medoc

Saint-Estephe

Pauillac

Saint-Julien

Margaux

Listrac-Medoc

Moulis

72

What is listed as one of the leading unclassified estates of the Medoc?

Chateau Sociando-Mallet

73

Saint-Estephe AOP

Northernmost commune AOP in the Haut-Medoc

Jalle de Breuil marks the southern boundary of Saint-Estephe and divides Chateau Cos d'Estournel from Pauillac's Chateau Lafite Rothschild

74

Cos d'Estournel and Montrose. Growth and AOP?

Second - Saint-Estephe

75

Pauillac AOP

Deepest croupes of gravel in the Medoc

Most important site for Cabernet Sauvignon in Bordeaux

Northern boundary marked by Lafite-Rothschild,

Southern boundary marked by Latour

Classic style is power-dark, brooding wines that require years in the cellar to unclench

76

Saint-Julien AOP

Geographically between Margaux and Pauillac

Does not claim any first growths

Eleven classified growths that control 85% of the commune's production, the highest proportion of classified vineyards in any Medoc appellation

Defined by what it's not - elegant without being Margaux, firm without the power of Pauillac

Deep gravel soils

77

Cru Artisan

Formally recognized in 2002. From the 2005 vintage forward, 44 small producers. Work on average 6 ha each

78

Cru Burgeois

Originally introduced in 1932 - 444 properties that did not make it into a higher classification

Three tiers:

Cru Bourgeois exceptionnel

Cru Bourgeois supérieur

Cru Bourgeois

Last major revision was in 2003 trimmed the list to 247 chateaux and only nine exceptionnels, mandated further revision every 12 years.... Theres more to this that I don't feel like writing right now.

79

What separates Graves from the sea?

The Landes Forest

80

[What are the top styles of Graves?

All three: dry red, dry white, sweet white - it is the only region in Bordeaux to contribute top styles of all three

81

What is the soil type in Graves?

Gravel in the north

Sand and limestone in the south

82

When was the first list drafted for the Graves classification? The final list?

1953

1959

83

What is the Graves classification?

A list of chateau first drafted in 1953

Departure from the 1855 template, there was only one designation - cruller classé.

Initial list revisited, more chateaux added, finalized in 1959. Theoretically not set in stone, nor subjected to routine revisions like Saint-Émilion.

84

Which two chateaux disappeared from the Graves classification in the 2000s?

Chateau La Tour Haut-Brion (classified for red wine) - 2005

Chateau Laville Haut-Brion (classified for white ine) - 2008

85

When was Pessac-Leognan created? Why?

1987 by the INAO

Andre Lurton arrived from the Entre-deux-Mers to address concerns of proprietors of the classified estates in Graves. He was made president of the Syndicat de Hautes Graves by the mid 1970s and pressed for a creation of a new AOP to save the region from the threat of obliteration.

86

Where are Sauternes and Barsac located?

Southern Graves along the left bank of the Garonne River.

87

What is the French term for noble rot?

pourriture noble

88

Who was deemed the only premier crus supérieur?

Chateau d'Yquem

89

What issues did Sauternes face with marketing in the mid-20th century?

Cheap, mass-produced sweet wines from Graves

90

What does botrytis do?

When it attacks the grape, it permeates the skin and dehydrates it, so that sugar, acidity, and glycerol content are heightened. The wines achieve an intense spiced complexity that would be impossible to duplicate through normal dehydration; with time the afflicted grapes can imbue a bouquet of honey, saffron, dried fruit, ginger spice, even iodine.

91

What did Chateau d'Yquem famously do in 1974 in?

Performed 11 tries over ten weeks, only to reject the wine.

92

Sauternes winemaking

Barrel fermentation is common - top wines are generally fermented in barriques and aged in them as well. Sulfur dioxide is a necessary tool during fermentation and elevage, used to reduce volatile acidity, a constant threat in Sauternes, and to ward off the risk of re-fermentation Chaptalization and cryo-extraction are both permitted, despite essentially confirming failures in the vineyard. Can hit a finished alcohol level of 14% with residual sugar range up to 120-160 g/L

93

Barscac AOP

Producers may choose to label their wines under the separate Barsac AOP, but many choose the more recognizable Sauternes. Wines used to be a touch drier, but now the appellations are almost identical. If producers choose to make a dry wine, they are limited to the Bordeaux AOP.

94

Cérons AOP

Sweet white wines OR dry white and red labeled Graves

Growers generally lack the inclination or the funds necessary to make great botrytized wine in the style of Sauternes.

New oak and tries run up the bills and the risks are great.

95

The Right Bank

Saint-Émilion, Pomerol, Fronsac and their satellites

All wines are red

10% of Bordeaux wines - 12,400 ha Bourg and Blaye

Higher elevations than the Medoc

Raised plateaus, rolling hills, variable exposures - Medoc is flat Cool clay and calcareous soils dominate More suitable for Merlot than Cabernet Sauvignon

96

General encépagement for the Right Bank

70% Merlot

30% Cabernet Franc

White wines fall under the Bordeaux AOP

97

Merlot in the Right Bank

Ripens easily in the cooler, clay-riddled soils and is generally more adaptable, less susceptible to disease, more evenly ripening, and longer-lived than Cabernet Franc

The thinner skins do attract rot

98

Cabernet Franc in the Right Bank

The region's traditional grape

Stands in for the structure of Cabernet Sauvignon in right bank blends and tempers the fruitcake and jam of Merlot with brighter acidity and restrained alcohol.

99

Grapes of the Right Bank

Merlot

Cabernet Franc

Petit Verdot is basically non-existent

Smattering of Malbec

Three or Four producers playing with the revival of Carmenére.

100

Biggest difference in Chateau, Left Bank vs. Right Bank

Left Bank chateau can easily amass 60-80 ha of vines Right Bank rarely exceeds 20 to 25 ha Right Bank Chateau are growing today

101

Where is the highest proportion of Chinese-owned estates in Bordeaux?

Fronsac

102

What is the garagiste movement?

Sparked by Valandraud in Saint-Émilion, rapidly swelled in the 1990s but has subsided in recent years. A vin de garage serves to identify both size and intent: whether or not they are actually produced in a garage, the wines are small-production, low-yielding, extracted efforts that undergo severe selections and new oak

103

What is the picturesque hallmark of Saint-Émilion?

The spire of a towering Romanesque cathedral

104

When was Saint-Émilion designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site?

1999

105

Who is Chateau Ausone named after?

The poet Ausonius

106

Where does the soil turn from clay to gravel on the right bank?

Near the gravelly terrace of Pomerol on the norwestern sector of the plateau. This is where Cabernet Franc rises.

This is where Chateau Figeac is located, one of the few Saint-Émilion properties with a substantial amount of Cabernet Sauvignon planted

This is also where Chateau Cheval Blanc is, a property that blends more Cabernet Franc than Merlot into their grand vin.

107

What are the most historic growing areas on the right bank?

The cotes, or slopes, of the limestone plateau near the commune of Saint-Émilion itself.

108

What is the soil type in the sprawling valley of the Dordogne, where much of the 20th-century vineyard expansion occurred?

Soils turn sandier, wines turn lighter and more forgettable. There is some gravel in the valley, but overall this is not a sector of high potential. The vineyards closest to the river may only apply to the regional appellation, Bordeaux AOP

109

Saint-Émilion Grand Cru Classé and Saint-Émilion Premier Grand Cru Classé

Separate AOCs introduced alongside Saint-Émilion Grand Cru in 1954

The cru classé AOCs did not comply with the EU defitinion of an appellation and in 1984 the classifications of grand cru classé and premier cru classé were eliminated as appellations.

From 1954 to 1984, there were four separate AOCs for Saint-Émilion; today, there are two.

110

What year were the three new AOCs established for Saint-Émilion? What were they?

1954

Saint-Émilion Grand Cru

Saint-Émilion Grand Cru Classé

Saint-Émilion Premier Grand Cru Classé

The latter two were eliminated as appellations, but not classifications, in 1984

111

How frequently were revisions intended to be done for the Saint-Émilion classification?

Every 10 years

112

When was the first list of premier grand cru classé, grand cru classé, and grand cru estates completed?

1955

Legally enacted in 1958 Updates in 1969, 1986, 1996, 2006, 2012

113

What revision year jeopardized the integrity of the Saint-Émilion classification? Why?

2006

A group of demoted chateaux brought legal action and scuttled the results. This went on in the French courts for years, resulting in a 2009 compromise that allowed chateaux promoted in 2006 to retain their new status while demotions were rendered invalid.

114

The Saint-Émilion Wine Council shifted authority over to what organization to maintain the classification's quality control?

The INAO - an appeals process was added for demoted chateaux

The current classification (2012) was conducted entirely by the INAO in accordance with set principles: analyses of soil, topography, viticultural and winemaking techniques; and examination of the estate's reputation; and a tasting spanning a decade of vintages. Producers may not add or subtract vineyards at will, and properties are not necessarily classified in total.

Ex. Only 27 of Chateau Angelus' 29 hectares of vineyards are ranked as premier grand cru classé A

115

What are the current premier grand cru classé A estates?

Cheval Blanc

Ausone

Angelus (new)

Pavie (new)

116

How many premier cru classé B and grand cru classé properties are there?

14 premier cru classé B

64 grand cru classé

117

What is Bordeaux's smallest village appellation?

Pomerol

118

What type of soil is Chateau Petrus known for?

Blue Clay on the Buttonhole

Petrus is centered on the soil, some of their neighbors are on parts of it, but only Petrus can claim vineyards that are almost entirely situated on this patch of thick blue clay

119

What are the three soil types found in the rising plateau of Pomerol? (From lowest to highest)

Sand

Gravel

Clay

120

What is crasse de fer?

Iron-rich sand deposits celebrated by some producers as part of the "magic" of Pomerol's terroir

121

What is the buttoniére of Pomerol?

The Buttonhole

An area located at the highest elevation in eastern Pomerol consisting of purer, water-retaining clay with some gravel. The Buttonhole is an area of deep blue clay at Pomerol's highest and easternmost point, spanning just 20 ha.

122

Who is one of the only great Bordeaux properties to produce a mono-varietal wine?

Petrus

In most years, the grand vin is 100% Merlot

123

Grapes of Pomerol

70% of total vineyard area is Merlot. After the winter of 1956 that was so devastating, growers replanted with Merlot.

25% Cabernet Franc (on the rise to due rising temperatures and Merlot's affinity to produce sugar)

5% Cabernet Sauvignon

Very little Petit Verdot or Malbec

124

What is the main landmark of Pomerol

The Church of Pomerol

125

Who are some of the top estates in Pomerol?

Petrus

Vieux Chateau Certan

Lafleur

l'Evangile

Trotanoy

Clinet

la Conseillante

Petit Village

Le Pin (all of these less than one kilometer from Petrus)

126

Which notable Chateau of Pomerol was sold to Chinese interests in 2013?

Chateau Le Bon Pasteur

127

Why was there an initial fall from grace with Fronsac and Canon Fronsac?

They used to be some of the most sought-after wines of all the right bank in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Then, phylloxera struck - growers moved closer to the river where floods prevented the bugs incursion.

128

Which is held in higher regard? Fronsac or Canon Fronsac

Canon Fronsac

129

What is Fronsadais molasse?

A mixture of soft limestone and clay found in Canon Fronsac and Fronsac

130

What are some of the top estates in Canon Fronsac?

Chateau Grand-Reonouil

Chateau Gaby

131

What are some of top estates in Fronsac?

Chateau Dalem

Chateau de la Dophine

Chateau Fontenil (Michel Rolland)

Chateau de La Riviere (Largest in the region)

132

What are the Saint-Émilion satellites?

Lussac-Saint-Émilion AOP

Puisseguin-Saint-Émilion AOP

Montagne-Saint-Émilion AOP

Saint-Georges-Saint-Émilion AOP

Originally there was six - Parsac and Sables.

133

What body of water divides Saint-Émilion AOP from the satellite appellations to the north?

The Barbanne River

134

Which satellite produces the most amount of wine?

Montagne-Saint-Émilion

135

What is the smallest satellite?

Saint-Georges-Saint-Émilion

136

Lussac-Saint-Émilion

About twice as many hectares of vines as Puisseguin and is almost on par with Montagne's production

137

Puisseguin-Saint-Émilion

Furthest north, highest in elevation of the satellites

One of the last places that harvest occurs each year. It borders Castillon

138

Lalande-de-Pomerol AOP

Two communes: Lalande-de Pomerol and Néac. Merlot dominates. Five minute drive from Petrus Similar soil

139

Entre-Deux-Mers

Land between the seas (Between the Garonne and Dordogne)

Established AOC status solely for white wines in 1937, further restricted to dry white wines - 1957

Merlot dominates the vineyards today - destined for Bordeaux AOP or Bordeaux Superieur AOP

140

Entre-Deux-Mers topography

Weathered limestone plateau overlaid with cool clay and sandy clay soils that rises to 100 meters above sea level (high for Bordeaux)

141

What are the subzones of the Cote de Bordeaux AOP? When was it established?

Blancs

Cadillac

Castillon

Francs

Saint Foy

2009