Botany Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Botany Vocab Deck (21):
1

Bryophytes

non-vascular; mosses; flagellated sperm; gametophyte=dominant phase; sporophyte is dependent on gametophyte

2

Pteridophytes

vascular; seedless; ferns; flagellated sperm; sporophyte=dominant phase; free living gametophye

3

Gymnosperms

vascular; seeds; nonflagellated sperm; conifers; no fruits/flowers; sporophyte=dominant phase; gametophyte retainer within the sporophyte

4

Angiosperms

vascular; seeds; nonflagellated sperm; flowers; sporophyte=dominant phase; gametophye retained within the sporophyte

5

Charophyceans

green algae; closest relatives of land plants; have distinctive rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes, peroxisome enzymes, flagellated sperm, and form a phragmoplast (cell plate) during division

6

Xylem

conducts most of the water and minerals up from the root; cells are dead at functional maturity

7

Tracheids

tube-shaped cells that carry water and minerals up from roots; long thin cells with tapered ends; hardened with lignin

8

Phloem

living tissue in which nutrient conducting cells are arranged into tubes that distribute sugars, amino acids, and other organic products; generally transport from photosynthetic parts of the leaves to the rest of the plant

9

Bark

all tissues external to the vascular cambium

10

Mycorrhizae

symbiotic fungus on the roots to help get water

11

Parenchyma

have primary walls that are relatively thin and flexible; most lack secondary walls; least specialized; perform most metabolic functions

12

Collenchyma

have thicker primary walls than parenchyma cells; walls are unevenly thick; lack secondary walls; help support young parts of the plant shoot

13

Sclerenchya

thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin; supporting elements of the plant; much more rigid than collenchyma cells; cannot elongate

14

Sieve Tube Elements

part of phloem; alive at functional maturity; lacks a nucleus, ribosomes, and a distinct vacuole

15

Cork Cambium

lateral meristem; replaces the epidermis with thicker, tougher periderm

16

Vascular Cambium

adds layers of secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem; plants with vascular cambium are called woody plants

17

Monocots

one cotyledon (single seed leaf); veins are parallel; vascular bundles are usually complexly arranged; fibrous roots; flowers in multiples of 3

18

Dicots

two cotyledons (double seed leaf); veins are netlike; vascular bundles usually arranged in a ring; taproots; flowers in multiples of 4 or 5

19

Root

an organ that anchors a vascular plant in the soil, absorbs minerals and water, and often stores carbohydrates

20

Taproot

one large vertical root

21

Root Hair

on root tips; enormously increases surface area