Bovine Lameness Flashcards Preview

Food Animal Medicine & Surgery > Bovine Lameness > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bovine Lameness Deck (34):

What are the causes of blackleg?

Ineffective or lack of vaccination
Closterdium chovei


What is malignant edema? How do you treat?

Cl. septicum +/- sordellii, novyi
Caused by wounds, injections or usage of contaminated vials -> causes fever & toxaemia
Treat with penicillin parenterally and even inject around the lesion.
(you can vaccinate twice, 2 weeks apart)


Maternal Obstetrical Paralysis -> what are the two kinds?

1. Obturator (very rare)
2. Sciatic involvement


Obturator paralysis looks like what?

Can't adduct it's legs, wide base stance with hind limbs extended forward


Scaitic paralysis looks like what? Caused by?

Can't get up, exhausted
Due to prolonged unassisted calving, cuasing pinching of the sciatic nerve, or an assisted calving where they let the cow rest afterwards.


What is downer cow syndrome?

A cow that isn't able to stand after 24 hours and 2 treatments of hypocalcemia and all other causes have been eliminated


What causes downer cow syndrome?

Laying on one leg for 6 hours or more (compartmental syndrome)… only 1/3rd of cows recover. (causes peroneal nerve injury -> hyper flexion of fetlock)


What effects prognosis of downer cow syndrome?

The cow's attitude and determination, value and client's time.


Name three lifting aids

Hip lifters, body slings, flotation tanks (should be used early!!)


What can cause hip luxation?

1. True obturator paralysis
2. Downer cow syndrome
3. Estrus activity on slippery surface
4. Misadventure


What does hip luxation look like?

Usually craniodorsal
• Stifle and digit rotate outward if
able to stand
• DDx – femoral neck fracture


What causes stifle injuries

A twisting action of the limb while claws are firmly placed on the ground. Can be due to estrus & breeding activity. It is usually a partial or complete rupture of cranial cruciate ligament and meniscal injury (check out in lateral recumbency). Small damage can cause bit issues.


Spastic syndrome

Genetic dominant
After rising


Spastic paresis

Elso heel
Progressive unilateral


Contracted tendons

Contracted tendons common in 4 limbs


Carpal hydroma

Don't do anything - ignore, treat with rest


Tarsal cellulitis

Hairless thickened skin
Bruised/thickened skin
If abscesses - treat locally
Systemic ceftiofur
(can also get septic cellulitis)


Pasture foot rot

Fusobacterium necrophrum
Need to have a puncture
Swelling of the interdigital space
lameness, febrile
broken skin space, foul odour
arthritis in P2/P3 can be complication
Systemic antibiotics - penicillin/oxytetracyline/ceftiofur
(can also get septic cellulitis)
CuSO4 for soak


Heel horn erosion/stable foot rot

Caused by poor hygiene
Usually at the end of winter
Bilaterally at the hind limbs
Dichelobacter nodosis
See this bilateral lesions, with unilateral lameness
May also have digital dermatitis
Remove necrotic tissue, re-trim in 3 months
Don't give antibiotics for this!
Do sand bedding or pasture mats


Digital dermatitis

Looks like strawberry foot rot
Heifers new in a milking herd
Similar to stable foot rot
Two different spirochetes cause this (treponema)
No swelling
Usually 1 limb affected
Rest foot when standing, walk with minimal lameness
Treat with topical oxytetracycline spray
Control using a footpath
spray with oxytetracycline & get regular hoof trimming/disinfect between animals


Sole Ulcer

Circumscribed area of hemorrhage and necrosis towards asia surface
Lateral - hind
Medial - forelimb
Heavy cows
Can be combined with nutrition issue - too much protein
Sole/plantar process of P3
Treat it by putting a medial block on


White line disease

Disintigration of the fibrous junction between the sole and the wall - and penetrated by fibrous debris
High level of concentrate in food
Heavy animals
Lateral claw of hind limb
Abscessed - discharge at coronary band
Can get arthritis - navicular bursa
retroarticular infection can happen & arthritis
Trim up to the wall, block the sound claw


Laminitis - what is it, diagnosis treatments?

acute grain overload
diagnosed by characteristics stance and history
slipper foot
treat with ketoprofin


Sand crack - what is it, 3 types?

vertical fissure of the periopal and horn
Type 1 - coronary band
Type 2 - to mid-claw
Type 3 - to weight bearing surface


Sand crack where & causes

Front lateral, abaxial surface
nothing to do with dryness
Poor feed to lush feed?
Biotin - vitamin H
lameness - only to type 3
trimming the edges, remove the axial portion of the toe to reduce weight bearing


Corkscrew claw

cull them


foot baths

Copper sulphate


hoof trimming

ever 6 months for dairy cows
at least once before 1st parturition


septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint

Toe tilt
fistulous tracts


septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint - treatments (3)

Digital amputation (go up into P1, pressure bandage for 5 days, change for 5 days)
Arthrodesis (solar/lateral techniques - how did the infection enter the joint?)


septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint -Arthrodesis

solar/lateral techniques - how did the infection enter the joint?
Solar - affect the DDF
Lateral - deal with DDF, but harder to drain
Place a drain, put a pressure bandage


septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint - can you ship?

No, if they are lame
can't put them on the truck
systemic antibiotics won't work on their own


Septic arthritis secondary to umbilical infections

secondary to umbilical issues
naval disinfection


Mycoplasma - chronic pneumonia & polyarthritis syndrome

with caseous micro abscessation - mycoplasma pneumonia & arthritis