Flashcards in BPP Study Manual Ch8 - Free Movement of Goods 2 Deck (40):
Who is bound by Article 34 TFEU?
Member states and public or quasi-public bodies
What demonstrates that Art 34 TFEU applies to quasi-public bodies?
Royal Pharmaceutical Society of GB
What does Art 34 say?
-Quantative restrictions on imports
-and all measures having equivalent effect
-shall be prohibited between Member States
How are quantative restrictions defined?
measures which amount to a total or partial restraint of imports, exports or goods in transport
What defined quantative restrictions?
Geddo v Ente Nazionale Risi
Give an example of a QR and a case that showed this
- total ban on imports
- Henn and Darby
- total ban on importing hardcore pornography
Other than total bans on imports, what else constitutes QRs? Give an example case.
- International Fruit Co
What are MEQRs? Give some examples
- measures having equivalent effect as a QR; disguised QRs
- e.g. rules that regulate physical requirements that products have to satisfy i.e. in shape or packaging
What two sources give information about MEQRs?
- Directive 70/50, though now inoperative
How did Directive 70/50 affect the handling of MEQRs?
- divided into distinctly and indistinctly applicable
What are distinctly applicable measures?
- ones that do not apply equally to imported and exported products
- e.g. rules that demand higher standards for imported goods than domestic goods
What are indistinctly applicable measures?
- measures that look like they're equally applicable to domestic and imported goods
- but the effect of the measure disadvantages imported goods by requiring them to satisfy the state's rules for domestic goods
Give an example of an indistinctly applicable measure.
- a national rule that imposes conditions on the packaging or composition of products
Give a case involving indistinctly applicable measures.
- Walter Rau
- Belgian statute requiring all margarine to be sold in cubic packages
- addressed to all margarine producers but only Belgian margarine producers sold it in cubic packages already
- treated as an MEQR because disproportionate way to achieve this goal
How are MEQRs defined?
-all trading rules enacted by Member States
-which are capable of hindering
-directly or indirectly, actually or potentially
What defined MEQRs?
How wide is the Dassonville definition of MEQRs? What case showed this?
- extremely wide
- Buy Irish case
- enough that there existed the potential for intra-state trade to be affected
What have been classified as distinctly applicable MEQRs in past cases?
- imposing additional requirements on imported goods (Firma Denkavit)
- national rules giving preference to domestic goods ( Buy Irish)
- restricting channels of distribution for imported goods (Dassonville)
What have been classified as indistinctly applicable MEQRs in past cases?
- ones involving product characteristics that require importers to have a special production line to make goods specifically for that state e.g. Walter Rau
- public procurement contracts that indirectly favour domestic goods (e.g. Commission v Ireland (Re Dundalk Water Supply) Irish pipes etc.
How do defences work in relation to QRs and MEQRs?
- for indistinctly applicable MEQRs, defences can come from Art 36 or from the Cassis de Dijon case
What categories of derogation are listed in Art 36?
1) protection of public morality, policy and security
2) protection of health and life of humans, animals or plants
3) protection of national treasures (artistic, historic, or archeological value)
4) protection of industrial and commercial property
What must be complied with when MS use derogations?
cannot be relied upon if:
- the measure constitutes arbitrary discrimination
- the article is a disguised restriction on trade
- if measures taken by the MS are disproportionate to their objectives.
When was a derogation for public morality allowed? When was it not?
- Henn and Darby
- allowed because the banned pornography was illegal in the UK. Applied equally to domestic and imported goods.
- not allowed because inflatable love dolls were made in the UK too. Did not apply equally to domestic and imported goods.
When was a derogation for public policy reasons allowed? When was it not?
R v Thompson
- UK ban on exporting silver coins allowed because states have a need to protect the right to mint coinage.
Centre Leclerc Toulouse
- disallowed because the French government had not proved that they could not handle disturbances caused by allowing lower petrol prices
When was a derogation allowed for public security reasons?
- Campus Oil
- requirement for importers of oil to buy some from the Irish government's refinery allowed because states need their own supplies of important energy resources
When was a derogation for the protection of health and life of animals, humans or plants allowed? When was it not?
- Dutch refusal to authorise the import of muesli bars with added vitamins allowed because there was no evidence about the vitamins
Beer Purity Case
- German attempt to ban beer that had additives was not allowed because there was little evidence that additives presented a risk to public health
When were derogations to MEQRs allowed for environmental reasons?
- German requirement for some electricity to be purchased from renewable energy sources allowed as an MEQR
- allowed because it was designed to protect the health and life of humans, animals and plants
What two principles derived from the Cassis De Dijon case?
1) presumption of mutual recognition
2) mandatory requirements (rule of reason)
What is the presumption of mutual recognition?
- the presumption that goods lawfully produced and marketed in one country should in principle be able to be sold in another MS without further restrictions
- rules which impose a double burden on importers infringe on Art 34 TFEU
What case confirmed the decision in Cassis de Dijon?
the Mars case (10% larger Mars bars)
How does the mandatory requirements rule work?
- non-exhaustive list
- obstacles can be allowed to satisfy mandatory requirements for policy reasons
Give a case where the Cassis de Dijon principles were applied.
Relabelling of Cocoa Products case
- considered presumption of mutual recognition and rejected MEQR as failing the test
- considered mandatory requirements and could not rebut the principle of mutual recognition because Italy failed to persuade the court that there were any relevant policy considerations
How was the Cassis decision modified and by what?
created the distinction between selling arrangements and MEQRs
What are selling arrangements?
rules that concern who sells products, and when, where and how products are sold, rather than the physical characteristics of the product itself.
What two requirements need to be met for selling arrangements to not be caught by Art 34?
selling arrangement must
1) apply to all affected traders operating within the national territory
2) affect in the same manner in law and in fact the marketing of domestic and imported products
Give an example of an instrument that was classified as a selling arrangement.
- opening times in Stoke-on-Trent v B&Q
Give an example of a case where an instrument was classified as an MEQR not a selling arrangement.
- Gourmet International Products
- ban on advertising alcohol held not to be a selling arrangement
- total ban on advertising prevented foreign companies from breaking into the market
- therefore did not affect domestic and imported products the same in fact.
Why were advertising bans not an MEQR in the Herbert Karner case?
- not a total band
- alternative means of advertising existed
- access to the domestic market for imports was not impossible
Why could the advertising in Familiapress not be a selling arrangement?
- preventing advertising of big money prizes in newspaper and magazines
- rule was based on the actual content of products