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Flashcards in Brain Deck (137):
1

control center that has the ability to perceive, analyze, and react
-site of our personality, intelligence, creativity, perception

brain

2

what are the 4 major regions of the brain

cerebral hemisphere, diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum

3

structure that facilitates higher thought and intergration

cerebral cortex

4

conscious thought processes, intellectual functions, memory storage/processing, concscious/sub regulatuion of muscle contractions

cerebrum

5

thalamus and hypothalamus make up the

diencephalon

6

relay and processing centers for sensory and motor info

thalamus

7

centers controlling emotions, autonomic functions and hormone production

hypothalamus

8

what makes up the brain stem

mesencephalon, pons, medulla oblongata

9

processing visual and auditory data, generation of reflexive somatic motor responses, maintenance of consciousness

mesencephalon

10

relays sensory info to cerebellum and thalamus, subconsious somatic & visceral motor centers

pons

11

relays sensory info to thalamus and to other portions of the brain stem, autonomic centers for regulation of visceral function (cardiovascular,resp, digestive system activities

medulla oblongata

12

coordinates complex somatic motor patterns, adjusts output of other somatic motor centers in brain and spinal cord

cerebellum

13

when does the CNS first appear and was what

embryological development as a hollow neural tube

14

what starts to expand at week 4

forebrain-prosencephalon
midbrain- mesencephalon
hindbrain- rhombencephalon

15

prosencephalon divides to form

telencephalon (no more pro after this)

16

cerebrum: cerebral hemispheres (cortex, white matter, basal nuclei)

telencephalon

17

thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, subthalamus, retina

diencephalon

18

brain stem, mid brain

mesencephalon

19

brain stem, pons

metencephalon

20

brain stem, medulla oblongata

myelencephalon

21

adult neural canal region: lateral ventricles

telencephalon

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adult neural canal region: third ventricle

diencephalon

23

adult neural canal region: cerebral aqueduct

mesencephalon

24

adult neural canal region: fourth ventricle

metencephalon, cerebellum, myelencephalon

25

adult neural canal region: central canal

spinal cord

26

elevations on the brain

gyrus

27

grooves/foldings on the brain between gyri

sulcus

28

why does the number of sulci increast the surface area of the brain

so we can pack more neurons into a small area

29

the lobes are divided into

frontal parietal temporal occipital lobes

30

compared to other mammals, our __ is most highly developed in humans

cerebrum

31

cerebrum is involved in

intelligence, perception/interpretation, reaction to novel situations, memory, language (reading, writing, speech) creativity, learning

32

on an MRI, the bight areas show
(the brighter the area,__)

metabolic activity taking place there
(the greater the metabolic activity)

33

the gray matter is made up of

neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, associated glia and blood vessels but no fiber tracts

34

cerebral cortex accounts for __% of brain mass (why?)

40% (because all convolutions triple its surface area)

35

white matter is composed of

myelinated fiber tracts with carry specific types of infrom between diff areas of the brain and connect higher/lower divisions of CNS

36

deep to white matter are islands of gray matter, function to regulate voluntary muscle movements

basal nuclei

37

damage to basal nuclei results in

diseases affecting the brain

38

deeper grooves than sulci that separate large regions of the brain

fissures

39

single deep fissure that separates the hemispheres

longitudal fissures

40

extension of dura mater that runs between hemispheres in the longitudal fissure

falx cerebri

41

the cerebral cortex is divided into

motor sensory and association

42

deep thing that separates the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebrum

central sulcus

43

anterior to central sulcus, involved with primary somatomotor commands

precentral gyrus

44

gyrus that is involved with receiving somatic sensory stimuli

post central gyrus aka somatosensory cortex

45

what is the somatosensory cortex/post central cortex involved in

interpreting and storing sensory info (ex knowing what a paperclip feels like)
aka association cortex

46

what area is phantom pain associated with

sensory association cortex

47

which cortex has to do with visuals

occipital
upper part of occipital has to do with visual association

48

primary auditory cortex for hearing and auditory association region; critical for speech

Wernicke's

49

area in frontal lobe for motor speech area (also critical for speech)

Brocas

50

cortex involved with programming simultaneous or sequential movements ex when doing a learned dance texting

premotor cortex

51

make sure to study the

brain with what moves what on slide 11

52

what kind of fiber tracts are on the cerebral cortex

commissures, association fibers, projection fibers, and internal capsule

53

connects with corresponding gyri of 2 hemispheres; allows right hand to know what the left is doing

commissures

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connections between the gyri of the same fibers

association fibers

55

these collectively form the internal capsule of white matter; consist of ascending and descending tracts that transmit impulses from the cerebral cortex to spinal cord and vice versa

projection fibers

56

where do all projection fibers pass through?

diencephalon

57

group of neuron cell bodies in the CNS, lie deep

basal nuclei

58

basal nuclei associated with what part of the brain

lower parts, subthalamic nuclei, substantia nigra of midbrain

59

this plays a role in large automatic muscle movements (swing arms while walking)

basal ganglia

60

damage to basal nuclei lead to devastating impairments of movement such as

tremors, ballismus and hemiballismus (sudden uncontrolled movements)

61

are the primary motor and sensory areas symmetrical

bilaterally symmetrical

62

we use both cerebral hemispheres for..

almost every activity

63

are association areas bilaterally symmetrical

no!

64

each brain hemisphere controls a unique set of functions different from the other even thought theyre symmetrical bilaterally

lateralization

65

speech writing language and mathematical calculation activites are located on which hemisphere

left

66

analysis by touch and spatial visualization and analysis are located in which hemisphere

right

67

gist of right and let hemispheres

speech language math science reasons -left
art imagination pattern perception- right

68

which structure takes up most of the dicencephalon

thalamus

69

consists of a bilateral, egg shaped collection of nuclei; major message relay station

thalamus

70

hearing appartus

cochlea

71

`geniculate nuclei that receives info from cochlea and relays it to temporal lobe where sound is sorted out

medial geniculate

72

geniculatethat receives info and relays info pertaining to vision

lateral geniculate

73

which nuclei involved with taste, crude (unpleasant) tough, pressure vibration heat cold and pain

ventral posterior group (thalamus)

74

structure that plays a rle in body temp regulation, water balance, metabolism, emotions

hypothalamus

75

what is the hypothalamus made up of

12 nuclei

76

relay station for reflexes related to olfaction (eating, licking swallowing, chewing etc)

mammillary bodies

77

region that contains the stalk of the pituitary gland and median eminence

tuberal region (hypothalamus)

78

structure that contains neurons that secrete hormones that regulate secretions of the pituitary gland

median eminence

79

region that lies above the optic chiasm and contains several nuclei including paraventricular nucleus

supraoptic region (hypothalamus)

80

nucleus that is the source of oxytocin (love hormone)

paraventricular nucleus (hypothalamus)

81

nucleus that synthesizes antidiuretic hormone (ADH- regulares blood pressure)

supraoptic nucleus (hypothalamus)

82

region where nuclei regulate autonomic functions (receive snesory info, regulates visceral acitivies-heart rate)

preoptic region (hypothalamus)

83

region that has nuclei that regulate food intake, thirst, waking/sleeping, primitive rage (rage aggression)

preoptic region (hypothalamus)

84

obesity, sleep disturbances, dehydration, emotional imbalances can all be cause by

hypothalamic disorders

85

syndrome where infants are deprived of parental care and nuturing (delay in childs growth/development)

failure to thrive

86

most dorsal portion of dicencephalon, forms roof of 3rd ventricle, pineal gland is the main component, source of melatonin

epithalamus

87

this makes one sleep, helps regulate daily rhythms, levels are regulated by light, jet lag

melatonin

88

structure that is responsible for coordination of movement, maintain homeostasis, consists of midbrain pons and medulla oblongata

brainstem

89

structure that connects the lower brain with the upper brain

cerebral peduncle

90

paired structures that connect the midbrain to the cerebellum dorsally

cerebellar peduncles

91

tiny canal that travels through the midbrain, connects 3rd ventricle to the 4th

cerebral aqueduct

92

4 rounded bumps that are involved with programming the eye head neck and movements so that we can track/ locate a visual/auditory stimulus

corpora quadrigemina

93

what are the 4 names for the corpora quadrigemina

left. right, superior & inferiour colliculi

94

an end of a collection of nuclei and tracts that extends through the entire length of the brainstem (involved w/ visceral function)

reticular formation

95

special group of neurons that are located in the reticular formation; plays a role in consciousness, states of awareness, sleep/wake cycles

reticular activating system RAS

96

what can damage to the RAS result in

permanent coma

97

which cranial nerve innervates most of the extrinsic eye muscles which function to move the eye

oculomotor

98

parasympathetic fibers in the oculomotor do what

smooth muscles that changes the sixe of the pupil and help lens bulge for near vision

99

this nerve is found laterally in the midbrain, innervates a single eye muscle

trochlear nerve

100

nucleus that has a rich blood supply w/ iron containing pigments, consists of cell bodies whose axons comprise the descending Rubrospinal tracts

red nucleus

101

structure that contains large darkly pigmented neurons that produce dopamine

substantia nigra

102

what disease can result from dead neuron cell bodies of the substantial nigra

Parkinson's disease

103

name of this means bridge, connects parts of the brain with spinal cord, contains nucleus that makes up part of the respiratory center (controls breathing)

pons

104

continuation of the spinal cord of which it merges and impulses leave the brain through this

medulla oblongata

105

two bulges on ventral side of medulla oblongata

pyramids

106

nuclei that are relay stations from the midbrain and cerebral cortex to the cerebellum

olives/ olivary nuclei

107

injury to the medulla oblongata can result in (why?)

death (many functions that keep us alive are centered here0

108

which nerve? hearing and balance

vestibulocochlear

109

which nerve? swallowing, salivation, taste

glossopharyngeal

110

which nerve? head and shoulder movements

accessory

111

which nerve? thoracic and abdominal viscera

vagus

112

which nerve? tongue movements

hypoglossal

113

the point where all the tracts cross

decussation

114

little cerebrum, separated from cerebral hemispheres by transverse fissure

cerebellum

115

this lies in the transverse fissure in which it lies a shelf of dura mater

tentorium cerebelli

116

what is the main function of the cerebellum

help us maintain balance and posture, coordinate movement

117

inner white matter that is arranged like a tree with many branches

arbor vitae / tree of life

118

outer most layer of the cerebellar cortex

molecular layer

119

row of cells that separates the molecular layer from the inner granular layer; play a critical role in integration of sensory and motor info

Purkinje cells

120

what can result if cerebellum is damaged

movement becomes clumsy and disorganized (ataxia)

121

when movements become clumsy and disorganized

ataxia

122

connective tissue membranes that float in watery cushion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that surrounds the brain and spinal cord

meninges

123

what are the 3 layers of meninges

dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

124

outermost and strongest of brain coverings

dura mater

125

layer of brain covering that is spider web like extensions that secure it to the underlying pia mater

arachnoid mater

126

space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater ;what does it contain

subarachnoid space; cerebrospinal fluid

127

thin, transparent covering that adheres snugly to the surface of the brain following the gyri and sulci

pia mater (carries blood vessels that supply/drain the brain)

128

filtrate of blood plasma that has a lot of vitamin C and has a different ion composition, it nourishes the brain/spinal cord, exchanges nutrients and waste products of neuron metabolism`

CSF cerebrospinal fluid

129

this protects the CNS vs injury by forming a fluid sac that suspends the brain and spinal cord from outside and inside, it is found in the ventricles where it is produced, central canal, and subarachnoid space

CSF cerebrospinal fluid

130

CSF is secreted by the __ found in the lateral and 4th ventricles;contains special networks of capillaries covered by ependymal cells

choroid plexus

131

these cells only allow certain materials to pass from the plasms and enter the CSF

ependymal cells

132

where does the CSF go after it finishes circulating around the CNS

reabsorbed back in to the blood vascular system

133

extensions that are mushroom shaped and project into the superiour sagittal sinus

arachnoid villi

134

any condition, disease, birth defect, or injury causes a blockage in the drainage sytem can result in

hydrocephalus (water on the brain)

135

what can calcify as we age; what is it called nest when they become hard

arachnoid villi --> arachnoid granulations

136

leak proof type of capillary barrier

continuous capillaries

137

what 5 lipid soluable things can get through the blood brain barrier

alcohol, caffeince, nicotine, heroin, anesthetics