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Biological and Cognitive Foundations > Brain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brain Deck (83):
1

rostral/anterior

towards the front/beak

2

caudal/posterior

towards the back/tail

3

dorsal

back

4

ventral

front

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contralateral

structures that provide functions on the opposite side of the body

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axial

cut with an ax.

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coronal

like a crown

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sagital

a slice through the brain parallel to the neuraxis and perpindicular to the ground 

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meninges

protective sheaths around the brain and spinal cord.

3 layers

  1. dura mater: "hard mother". thick, tough, flexible
  2. arachnoid membrane:web-like, soft and spongey
    (subarachnoid space)=filled with CSF
  3. pia mater: "pious mother". small blood vessels of brain and spinal cord

Outside CNS, the dura and pia mater merge to form a sheath protecting nerves and peripheral ganglia

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choroid plexus

collection of capillaries, one in each ventricle, produce CSF

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lateral ventricles

the largest chambers, connected to the third ventricle 

12

third ventricle

the ventricle located in the center of the diencephalon.  its walls divide the surrounding part of the brain into symmetrical halves.

 

a bridge of neural tissue called massa intermedia crosses through the middle and is a convenient reference point 

13

cerebral aqueduct

tube connecting 3rd and 4th ventricle 

14

arachnoid granulation

projections of arachnoid membrane through the dura mater into superior sagittal sinus

15

hydrocephalus (2 kinds)

non-communicating (obstructive): caused by blockage in ventricular system
 

communicating (non-obstructive): caused by overproduction of CSF

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How CSF travels through the brain

  1. choroid plexus produces CSF in lateral ventricles
  2. goes to the 3rd ventricle and produces more CSF
  3. goes through cerebral aqueduct to 4th ventricle and produces more CSF
  4. flows through subarachnoid space and is reabsorbed in arachnoid granulations

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Division of the Nervous System

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Division of Central Nervous System

Forebrain

Lateral-Telencephalon-Cerebral Cortex, Basal Ganglia, Lymbic System
Third-Diencephalon-Thalamus, Hypothalamus


Midbrain

Cerebral Aqueduct-Mesencephalon-Tectum, Tegmentum


Hindbrain

Fourth-Mentencephalon-Cerebellum, Pons

Mylencephalon-Medulla Oblongata

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neural tube

forms from ectoderm tissue early in development

origin of CNS 

 

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progenitor cells

the stem cells that make brain cells

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ventricular zone

cells lining the neural tube that contain progenitor cells

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subventricular zone

progenitor cells just inside ventricular zone made from traveling progenitor cells known as symmetrical division. Divides into 2 progenitor cells

thicker in mammals with large brains 

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asymmetrical division

when progenitor cells divide and make one neuron an additional progenitor cell

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Factors affecting brain development

genes: cell specialization
experience: blind braille readers and depth perception
neurogenesis: adult brain cells in hippocampus and olfactory bulb

25

Forebrain-

Describe Telencephalon

cerebral cortex: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe
basal ganglia: involved in control of motor movements (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus)
limbic system: emotion & memory; old cortex; contains cingulate gyrus (hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, mammilary bodies)

26

Forebrain-

Describe the Diencephalon

thalamus: "relay station" passes most senstory info on to the cerebral cortex after helping to prioritize it


hypothalamus: control center for appetite, defensive and reproductive behaviors, sleep/wakefulness

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thalamus

"inner chamber"

located above hypothalamus 

2 lobes connected by massa intermedia
relay station: nuclei project info to regions and receive info from them
contains: lateral geniculate nucleus(vision)
medial geniculate nucleus(audition)
ventrolateral nucleus(motor)

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Hypothalamus

controls autonomic nervous system and endocrine system and organizes behaviors related to survival (4 F's)
controls pituitary gland

 

Pituitary gland attached to base of the hypothalmus via the pituitary stalk 

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pituitary gland

anterior pituitary: sex hormones (prolactin, somatotropic hormone)
posterior pituitary: oxytocin and vassopressin

30

Midbrain

or "mesencephalon"

surrounds the cerebral aqueduct 

tectum
tegmentum

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tectum

"roof", located in the dorsal part of midbrain
contains: superior(visual) and inferior(auditory) colliculi
brain stem

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tegmentum

the "covering" of the midbrain beneath the tectum

ventral part of midbrain
includes periaqueductal gray matter, reticular formation, red nucleus & substantia nigra

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reticular formation

complex network of neurons receiving sensory info and sends it to cerebral cortex and spinal cord. plays role in sleep arousal, attention, muscle tone, and movement

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periaqueductal gray matter

contains neural circuits that control sequences of movement

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red nucleus and substantia nigra

axons from red nucleus are crucial for bringing motor info from cortex to cerebellum and spinal cord

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Hindbrain

Hindbrain- 4th ventricle-metencephalon-cerebellum,pons

also myelencephalon-medulla oblongata 

 

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pons

"bridge" responsible for/arousal

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cerebellum

"little brain"; covered by cortex and has deep cerebellar nuclei, which send messages to other parts of the brain. 
connected to the pons via cerebellar penducles "little feet"

 coordinates effects of movements

damage= impaired standing, walking, coordination

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medulla oblongata

controls vital functions like cardiovascular system, respiration and skeletal muscle tonus

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spinal cord

contains cauda equina; dorsal root; ventral root
white matter of spinal cord is on the outside and the gray matter is on the inside

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cauda equina

bundle of fibers located caudal to end of spinal cord

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dorsal root

spinal root for afferent sensory fibers (incoming)

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ventral root

root containing efferent motor fibers (outgoing)

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spinal nerves

peripheral nerve
contain sensory and motor fibers
31 pairs of nerves that inervate a different area of the body in a top down approach
nerves enter together, but dorsal (for sensory) come out the back and ventral (motor) come out the front
affect one side of the body

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dorsal root ganglion

nodule of dorsal root
contains cell bodies of afferent neurons

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cranial nerves

sensory and motor functions of teh head and neck (12 pairs)
vagus nerve regulates organs in thoracic and abdominal cavities

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autonomic nervous system

regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
contains: sympathetic and parasympathetic 

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sympathetic branch

consist of spinal nerves (thoracic and lumbar); and sympathetic ganglion

involved in expenditure of energy

fight of flight 

releases norepinephrine and epinephrine 

prepares body for phyiscal activity 

 

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parasympathetic branch

contains: cranial nerves, spinal nerves (sacral), and parasympathetic ganglia

involved with increases in body's supply of stored energy. controls functions that occur during relaxed state

rest and digest 

cell bodies located in nuclei of some cranial nerves and intermediate horn of gray matter 

 

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fourth ventricle

located between cerebellum and the dorsal pons

 

connected to the 3rd ventricle by the cerebral aqueduct 

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Describe subdivisions of the:

 

Forebrain

  • Forebrain
    • Lateral ventricle-->Telencephalon--> Cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system 
    • 3rd ventricle --> Diencephalon--> Thalamus, hypothalamus 

52

Describe subdivisions of the: 

Midbrain

Midbrain--> Cerebral aqueduct ventricle--> Mesencephalon--> Tectum, Tegmentum

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Describe the subdivisions of the:

Hindbrain

  • Hindbrain--> 4th ventricle--> 
    • Metencephalon--> Cerebellum, pons
    • Myelencephalon--> Medulla oblongota 

54

 

 

 

Occipital lobe 

(in forebrain)

 

 

helps process visual information, including recognition of shapes and colors 

55

 

 

Parietal Lobe

(in forebrain)

 

Involved with sensory processes, attention and language

Damage to left side

-impaired ability to understand spoken or written language

Damage to right side

-difficulty navigating spaces, even familiar ones 

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Temporal lobe 

(in forebrain)

 

 

  • helps process auditory info and integrate info from other senses
  • role in short term memory through:
    • hippocampal formation
    • in learned emotional responses through its amygdala 

57

 

 

Frontal lobe 

(in forebrain)

 

 

  • initiating and coordinating motor movement
  • higher cognitive skills, problem solving, thinking, planning 
  • personality and emotional makeup 

58

 

 

Midsagittal plane

 

the plane through the neuraxis perpindicular to the ground; 

divides the brain into 2 symmetrical halves 

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horizontal section

 a slice through the brain parallel to the ground 

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frontal section

a slice through the brain parallel to the forehead 

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cross section

 a slice taken at right angles to the neuraxis

(also known as frontal sections when referring to the brain!)

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medial

toward the middle of the body, away from the side 

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lateral

toward the side of the body, away from the middle 

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ventral

toward the belly 

in a direction perpindicular to the neuraxis toward the bottom of the skull or the front surface of the body 

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sulcus

a groove in the surface of the cerebral hemisphere, smaller than a fissure 

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fissure

a major groove in the surface of the brain, larger than a sulcus 

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gyrus 

a convolution of the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres, separated by sulci or fissures

 

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calcarine fissure

a fissure located in the occipital lobe on the medial surface of the brain

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primary auditory cortex

in temporal lobe; primary input is from auditory system

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primary visual cortex

in occipital lobe; primary input from visual system 

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lateral fissure

the fissure that separates the temporal lobe from the overlying frontal and parietal lobes 

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primary somatosensory cortex

the region of the anterior parietal lobe which receives infro from body senses, including taste 

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central sulcus

separates the frontal lobe from parietal 

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corpus callosum

large bundle of axons that interconnects corresponding regions of the association cortex on each side of the brain

 

makes it so that the left and right hempispheres communicate so that we have one perception of the world rather than two 

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neocortex

"new cortex"- of relatively recent evolutionary origin

includes primary sensory cortex, primary motor and association cortex

 

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cerebral cortex

covers most of the surface of the cerebral hemispheres

includes frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal 

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cingulate gyrus

important region of the limbic cortex

 

 

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limbic system

includes:

  • amygdala
  • hippocampus
  • limbic cortex
  • anterior thalamic nuclei
  • parts of hypothalamus
  • interconnecting fiber bundles

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brain stem 

from the medulla to the midbrain 

excluding the cerebellum

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radial glia

special glia with fibers that grow radially outward from the ventricular zone to the surface of the cortex

"tour guides"- provide guidance for neurons migrating outward during brain development 

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basal ganglia

includes: caudate nucleus, global pallidus, putamen 

(important for motor system)

Parkinsons' related to degeneration of certain neurons located in midbrain that send axons to caudate nucleus and putamen 

82

What "plays" the primary motor cortex? 

the premotor cortex 

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prefrontal cortex

in frontal lobe

involved with formulating plans and strategies