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Flashcards in Brain Deck (49):
1

Major parts of brain:

-brain stem
• medulla
• pons
• midbrain

- Cerebellum

- Cerebrum

- Diencephalon
• thalamus
• Hypothalamus
• Epithalamus

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Dura Mater

the tough outermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord

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Arachnoid Mater

middle layer between the Pia and Dura mater

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Pia Mater

the delicate innermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord

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Brain Blood Flow (BBB)

- flows in through the carotid + vertebral arteries then out through internal jugular veins

- formed by brain endothelial cells

- keeps out substances

- glucose = actively transported in

- antibiotic drugs + proteins don’t pass to brain

- lipid soluble substances- O2, CO2,alc, anesthesia- can access brain tissue

- trauma + toxins + inflammation cause break down of BBB

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The brain needs:

glucose + oxygen from blood

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Interruptions of BBB:

- 1-2 minute interruption in blood flow impairs neuronal function

- 4 minutes causes permanent injury to tissue

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Cerebral Spinal Fluid

- watery fluid w/ O2 , glucose, anions, actions and WBC

- between arachnoid and pia mater of the brain and spinal cord in the space: subarachnoid space

- Cavities that contain CSF:
• lateral ventricles (1 + 2)
• 3rd ventricle
• 4th ventricle

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Functions of CSF:

- Mechanical protection
• Shock absorber
• Brain floats

- Homeostasis
• Ph affects breathing + circulation

- protects brain and spinal cord from trauma.

- supplies nutrients to nervous system tissue + removes waste products

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Formation of CSF:

- Choroid Plexus:
• network of blood capillaries in ventricular walls

• Ependymal cells

• Selected substances from blood plasma filtered through capillaries

- Barrier formed by tight junctions of ependymal cells

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Medulla Oblongata

- contains all sensory + motor tracts between brain + spinal cord

- helps regulate blood vessel function, digestion, sneezing, and swallowing

- base of brainstem

- controls heartbeat and breathing

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Pons

- central region contains pontine nuclei (motor activity)

- voluntary motor output

- It helps relay messages from the cortex and the cerebellum

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Midbrain

- responsible for sight/hearing, pupil dilation and eyeball movement

- Aqueduct passes through here

- Tectum

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Tectum

- region of the brain, specifically the dorsal part of the midbrain

- responsible for auditory and visual reflexes.

- Superior Colliculi
- Inferior Colliculi
- Substania Nigra
- Red Nuclei

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Superior Colliculi

visual activities

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Inferior Colliculi

auditory pathway

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Substantia Nigra

deep gray matter containing the cell bodies of dopamine-producing nerve cells whose secretion tends to be deficient in Parkinson's disease

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Red Nuclei

blood + iron that controls muscular movement

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Reticular Formation

- responsible for arousal, wakefulness and attentiveness

- damage = coma

- Inactivation of sleep

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Cerebellum

- processes sensory input, coordinates movement + balance, enables nonverbal learning/memory

- alcohol inhibits activity

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Thalamus

- sensory control center

- directs messages to sensory receiving areas + transmits replies to cerebellum + medulla

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Hypothalamus

- regulate emotional and behavioral patterns

- eating and drinking

- body temp

- circadian rhythms

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Mammillary Region

sense of smell

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Infundibulum

connects pituitary to hypothalamus

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Epithalamus

- Pineal Gland: secrets melatonin

- Habenular Nuclei: emotional response to smell

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Limbic System

Emotional: pain, pleasure, anger, smell and memory

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Hippocampus

major memory center

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Amygdala

emotional response center and drives

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Alpha

normal awake adults and rested

- disappear during sleep

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Beta

during sensory input + mental activity

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Theta

Children + adults in emotional distress

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Delta

sleep in adults but normal in awake infants

- produced in adults = brain damage

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Cerebrovascular Accident — stroke

- blood blocked to brain and tissue dies

- commonly caused by blockage to cerebral artery

- other causes: compression of brain by hemorrhage or edema + atherosclerosis

- Transient Ischemic Attack’s (TIAS): episodes of reversible cerebral ischemia

34

Alzheimer’s

progressive degenerate disease of brain that results in dementia

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Parkinson’s

degeneration dopamine releasing neurons of substantia nigra

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Huntington’s

- fatal hereditary disorder

- caused by accumulation of protein hunting-tin that leads to degeneration of basal nuclei

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ALS

- neuromuscular condition invoking destruction of motor neurons

- symptoms: lose ability to speak, shallow, breathe

- death occurs within 5 years

- linked to malfunctioning genes for glutamate transporter or superoxide dismutase

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Brain Stem

-central core where spinal cord swells entering skull

- responsible for automatic survival functions

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Carotid Artery

supply oxygenated blood to the large, front part of the brain

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Vertebral Artery

- provide supply blood to the upper spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, and posterior part of brain.

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Internal Jugular Vein

drains blood from important body organs, such as the brain, face, and neck

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Wernicke’s Area

-location = left temporal lobe

- interprets written and spoken language

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Broca’s Area

- location= left frontal lobe

- controls language expression and muscles involved with speech

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Common Integrative Area

- sensory input

- appropriate response

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Prefrontal Cortex

- judgement

- complex

- learning

- mood

- intuition

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Premotor Area

learned motor activities

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Frontal Eyefield Area

voluntary scanning movements of eyes

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Orbitofrontal Cortex

identify and discriminate odors

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Cerebrum (Cerebral Cortex)

- largest part of the human brain,

- associated with higher brain function such as thought and action

- The Cerebral Cortex: 4 lobes: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lob