Brain and Cranial Nerves Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Brain and Cranial Nerves Deck (56):
1

Regions of the brain

Cerebrum,
diencephalon,
brainstem,
Cerebellum

2

Markings

Gyri: folds
Culci: Gooves
Fissures: Deep grooves

3

Grey and white Matter distribution

Grey matter: cortex and cerebral nuclei
White matter: corpus callosum, and deep to cortex

4

Cranial meninges (deep to superficial)

Pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater (2 layers)

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Pia mater

Deepest, areolar CT

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Arachnoid mater

web of collagen and elastic fibers. Subarachnoid space, under arachnoid mater contains CSF

7

Dura Mater

Meningeal layer: hugging meningies
Periosteal layer: hugging skull

8

Dural septum

provides support and stabilization

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Ventricles

cavities or expansions within the brain that are lined with ependymal cells and contain CSF.

10

List all ventricles

Right and left lateral ventricles, 3rd ventricle, 4th ventricle

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Where does cerebrospinal fluid circulate

ventricles, subarachnoid space

12

CSF function

buoyancy: brain floats in in, lightens apparent weight.
Protection: liquid cushion. slows movement of brain.
Environmental stability: maintains nutrients, regulates concetration and removal of wastes.

13

CSF formation

in the choroid plexus which is composed of a layer of ependymal cells and blood capillaries. CSI produced by secretion of ependymal cells.

14

CSF circulation

Production in choroid plexus in ventricles. Flowes through to 3rd ventricle to 4th. flows into the subarachnoid space from the central canal of the spinal cord. In the subarachnoid space, waste products and additional fluid are removed. Excess CSF is removed through dural venous sinuses.

15

Blood-brain barrier

Astrocytes wrap perivascular feet around capillaries . Help control materials from passing into extracellular fluid.
Prevents exposure of neurons in brain to drug, blood waste, variationsin levels of normal substances.

16

Where is the BBB not?

Not in hypothalmus, pineal gland, choroid plexus

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Lobes of Cerebrum

Frontal,
parietal,
occipital,
insula,
temporal

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Frontal lobe

Planning, analysis, personality, higher order cognition.

Contains primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, frontal eye field, motor speech

19

Parietal

Sensory Processing. Primary somatosensory cortex. Somatosensory association.

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Occipital

Primary visual, primary visual cortex, visual association

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Insula

Primary taste, primary gustatory cortex

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WHere are the motor functional areas?

Primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus)
Motor speech areas (Broca) left frontal lobe. Control speech muscles.
Frontal Eye field: Anterior to premotor cortex. regulates eye movement

23

Where are the sensory functional areas?

Primary somatosensory cortex (postcentral gyrus).
Primary visual cortex: occipital.
Primary olfactory cortex: temporal
Primary Gustatory cortex: insula

24

What are association areas

process and interpret incoming data or coordinate a motor response

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Arcuate fibers

connect neighboring gyri

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Longitudinal Fasciculi

connect gyri in different lobes of the same hemisphere

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commissural tracts

connect cerebral hemispheres

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projection tracts

link cerebral corex to inferior brain regions and spinal cord

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Cerebral nulei

paired irregular masses of grey matter. help regulate motor output, initiated by cerebral cortex and inhibit unwanted movement

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Diencephalon parts.

Epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus

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Epithalamus

pineal glad. Releases melatonin, monitors circadian rhythm

32

Thalamus

sensory relay station

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hypothalamus

master of autonomic nervous system, master controller of endocrine system. Regulates body temp, controls emotional behaviors, food and water intake, assist with sleep cycle

34

Brain stemparts

midebrain, pons, medula ablongata

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Midbrain

coordinates reflexive movemnts in reponse to visual and auditory stimuli

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pons

help coordinate motor info. Respiratory center helps control rate and depth of breathing.

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Medulla oblongata

has a repiratory center (pontine respiratory group) set rate and depth of breathing. Vasomotor center: control diameter go blood vessels. Cardiac control center regulates rate of heart contractions.

38

Cerebellum.

vermis and folia

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Cerebellum function

coordinates voluntary skeletal muscle stores memories of movement, patterns

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Limbic system

control memory and emotion. anger, rate, fear, sadness

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reticular formation

Reticular activating system. consciousness

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CN I

Olfactory, smell, sensory

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CN II

optic, sight, sensory

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CN III

Oculomotor, voluntary eye movements, motor

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CN IV

trochlear, One eye muscle, motor

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CN V

trigeminal, sensory for touch, motor muscles of mastication, mixed

47

CN VI

abducens, one eye muscle, motor

48

CN VII

Facial, taste from front 2/3 of tongue, motor muscles of face, mixed

49

CN VIII

Vestibulocochlear, equilibrium and hearing, sensory

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CN IX

Glossopharyngeal, taste (back 1/3) motor output to pharynx, mixed

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CN X

Vagus, visceral sensory info, autonomic motor output. mixed

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CN XI

Accessory , motor pharynx muscles, motor

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CN XII

hypoglossal, motor for tongue muscle, motor

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CN XII

hypoglossal, motor for tongue muscle, motor

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Lateral vetricles connected by

intraventricular foramen

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connect 3rd and 4th ventricles

Cerebral aqueduct