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Flashcards in Brain and Cranial Nerves Deck (173):
1

what are the 4 major divisions of human brain

cerebrum
diencephalon
brainstem
cerebellum

2

cerebrum

conscious portion of "mind"

3

diencephalon

hormones, routing

can't see

4

brainstem

routing, decussation, cardia, and respiratory

5

cerebellum

fine motor control
"cat portion"

6

what are the convolutions in cerebellum called

foli

7

what is the "mind" portion we use of our brain when we try to think or reason

cerebrum

8

what are the 12 cranial nerves

olfactory
optic
oculomotor
trochlear
trigeminal
abducens
facial
vestibulocochlear
glossopharyngeal
vagus
spinal accessory
hypoglossal

9

rostral

toward the nose

(anterior)

10

caudal

toward the tail

(posterior)

11

what is the rise in convolution

gyrus

12

what is the dip in convolutions

sulcus

13

what is a deep sulcus

fissure

14

what are the right and left half of the brain is called

hemispheres

15

in the CNS, what connects the nuclei?

tracts

16

where is the longest tract in the body

in the brain connecting the right and left hemisphere

17

what is the tract that connects the right and left hemisphere

corpus colosum

18

what forms the cortex?

grey matter

19

what is the cortex

outer layer/sheet

20

the outer layer of the brain is made out of what

grey matter

21

gray matter corms discrete internal clusters called

cerebral nuclei

22

where does white matter lay

deep to the grey matter of the cortex

23

what are the layers of the brain

dura matter
arachnoid matter
pia matter

24

dura matter is attached to what

the skull

25

what is in the subarachnoid space

cerebral spinal fluid

26

how is cerebral spinal fluid made

pure blood (clear)

27

what does arachnoid villi do?

reabsorbs dirty cerebral spinal fluid

found in sinuses

28

what are brain ventricles responsible for

where CSF is "made" "store" and "circulates

29

ventricles

cavities w/in brain

continuous w one another and the central canal of the spinal fluid

30

how many ventricles are there

4

31

where are the first two ventricles

lateral ventricals
one in each hemisphere of the cerebrum

32

what seperates the lateral vesicles

septum pellucidum

33

where is the third ventricle found

diencephalon

34

what is the largest ventricle

lateral ventricles

35

where is the fourth ventricle found

b/w the pons and cerebellum

36

CSF

clear liquid that circulates in the ventricles and subarachnoid spacy

37

what are some functions of CSF

gives brain buoyancy
liquid cushion from sudden movements for protection
transports nutrients and removes waste from brain

38

where is cerebral spinal fluid formed

choroid plexus

39

what is the CSF formed from

filtration of blood at the floor of ventricles then circulates the brain and spinal cord

40

what reabsorbs the CSF

arachnoid villi

41

what is the outside of the cerebrum made of

cell bodies

42

what does blood brain barrier do

strictly regulate what substances can enter the interstitual fluids of the brain

43

what contributes to the BBB

capillary, endothelial, astrocytes, and ependymal cells

44

what is the location in the brain of conscious thought processes and intellectual functions?

cerebrum

45

what is the outer later of the cerebrum called

cerebral cortex

46

what is the cerebral cortex made of

gray matter

47

what is the internal layer made of

white matter = axon and axon tracts

48

what is the surface of the cerebrum that consists of "folds" called

convolutions

49

confolutions consist of elevated ridges called

gyri

50

the depressions in the cerebrum are called

sulci

51

fissures

deeper sulcus

52

what is the cerebrum composed of

the left and right cerebral hemispheres

53

what are the cerebral hemispheres divided by

a longitudinal fissure

54

how are the two hemispheres connected

tracts

allows for communication

55

what is the largest tract and main tract that connects the two hemispheres

corpus colosum

56

the two hemispheres are anatomically mirror images but some functions remain on one side. what is that called?

hemisphere lateralization (ipsolateralization)

57

what are the 5 lobes of the cerebrum

frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital
insula

58

frontal lobe is responsible for

motor

59

parietal lobe is responsible for

sensory

60

temporal is responsible for

hearing/smell

61

occipital is responsible for

stores and processes image

62

insula is responsible for

memory and interpretation

63

the pre central gyrus is important for

motor responses sent down the spinal cord

64

what marks the inferior border

lateral sulcus

65

the pre central gyrus is located where

frontal lobe

66

the post central gyrus is located where

parietal lobe

67

the post central gyrus is important for what

somatosensory

68

what is the parietal lobe involved w

general sensory functions

69

temporal lobe is involved with

hearing
Balance

70

occipital lobe processes

incoming visual information

71

what lobe stores visual memories

occipital lobe

72

where is the insula located

lateral sulcus

73

contralateral

changes sides

74

ipsalateral

stays on the same side

75

what is the insula involved in

memory and interpretation of taste

76

what are the functional areas of cerebrum

motor areas
sensory areas
association areas

77

what category of area controls the voluntary/conscious motor function

motor area

78

what area of the cerebrum provides conscious awareness of sensation

sensory area

79

what area of the cerebrum integrates and stores information

association areas

80

when impulses from brain require you to do something that involves moving a muscle, what lobe is that

frontal lobe

81

when the sensory comes in, what lobe does it go to

parietal lobe

82

what lobe does the sense of smell go

temporal lobe

83

where is the warnekes area

left side

84

what is the end of the frontal lob and the beginning of the parietal lobe called

the central sulcus

85

why the central sulcus so important?

because a gyrus in the central sulcus controls all of your sensory and motor parts of skeletal muscle

86

what is the gnostic area in the brain

warnekes area

87

where is the part in your brain where you can take sound, pictures, and words and store it, and you can recall it, called?

warnekes area

88

when you speak or write, what area is firing?

brocas area

89

what is the area that controls muscular movements for vocalization

brocas area (motor speech area)

90

what area located w in precentral gyus that controls voluntary skeletal muscle activity

somatic motor areas (primary motor cortex)

91

somatosensory cortex

receives general somatic sensory info from touch, pressure, pain and temperature

92

where is somatosensory cortex

postcentral gyrus

93

visual cortex

receives and process incoming visual info

94

where is the visual cortex

occipital lobe

95

where is the auditory cortex

temporal lobe

96

auditory cortex

reveives and processes auditory info

97

what are the motor areas

somatic motor area
brocas area

98

is the motor area voluntary?

yes

99

parietal lobe is what

sensory areas

100

somatic is what kind of muscle

skeletal muscle

101

what are the parts of the sensory areas

somatosensory cortex
visual cortex
auditory cortex
gustatory cortex
olfactory cortex

102

gustatory cortex

processes taste info

located in insula

103

olfactory cortex

provides conscious awareness of smell

temporal lobe

104

what are the association areas

premotor cortex
somatosensory association area
auditory association area
visual association area
wernickes area
gnostic area

105

premotor cortex

located in frontal lobe

processes motor into and coordinates learned skilled motor activites

106

somatosensory association area

integrates and interprets sensory info

parietal lobe

107

auditory association area

characteristics of sound and stores memories of sound

occipital lobe

108

wernicke's area

recognizes and comprehends spoken and written language

(left hemi)

109

gnostic area

all sensory, visual, and auditory info

110

what regions of the brain are involved in the gnostic area

parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes

111

what functions are involved in higher order processing centers

speech, cognition, understanding spatial relationships, and general interpretation

112

central white matter makes up

tracts

113

the central white matter tracts connect

nuclei and centers

114

what do convolutions in the brain do?

give more surface area

115

what are the three names for the crossing of senses in the brainstem

contral laterization
decuzation
crossing over

116

what are the places where your functions in your brain crosses

medulla (pyramids of medulla)
spinal cord

117

if we want to involve high order processing, what does it have to involve

more than 1 nuclei

118

components of diencephalon

epithalamus
thalamus
hypothalamus

119

where is the dencephalon and what surrounds it?

in horns and surrounded by lateral ventricles

120

what is the main function of diencephalon

produce and store hormones

121

what is the area that contains "pineal" and habenular" nuclei

epithalamus

122

"pineal"

melatonin

123

what is the area of transfer for both incoming and outgoing information

thalamus

124

what component of the diencephalon secretes hormones that are stored in the pituitary gland

hypothalamus

125

everything but _____ goes through the thalamus

sense of smell

126

pituitary/master gland

HORMONES

127

what are the components of the epithalamus

pineal gland
habenular glad

128

pineal gland

melatonin
circadian rhythm

129

where does the thalamus site

right between the lateral ventricles

130

in the post central gyrus, what tells it where to go?

thalamus

131

habenular gland

from limbic system (popcorn in move theater)

visceral and emotional responses to odor

132

where is the thalamus

masses of gray matter that lie on each side of the third ventricle

133

function of thalamus

final relay point for sensory info

sensory impulses from all conscious senses except olfcation

134

visceral

GUTS

135

what is the anteroinferior region of the diencephalon

hypothalamus

136

infundibulum

tubes that takes hormones from hypothalmus and put it down in the pituitary

137

what takes hormones from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland

infundibulum

138

what are the functions of the hypothalamus

master control of autonomic system, endocrine system, and secretes a bunch of hormones

139

if we don't have control, it's

autonomic

140

if we have control, it's

somatic

141

prolactin

milk production

142

GH

growth hormone

143

ADH

antidieretic hormine

144

what connects the forebrain and cerebellum to the spinal cord

brainstem

145

oxytocin

milk let down

146

what are the three regions of the brainstem

mesencephalon (mid brain)
pons
medulla oblongata

147

how is the brainstem a relay station

has both motor and sensory tracts and running them to different parts of the brain

148

what houses the nuclei of many of the cranial nerves

brainstem

149

how many cranial nerves do you have

12

150

how many spinal nerves do you have

31 pair

151

another name for mesencephalon

midbrain

152

main function of mesencephalon

relay station

contain nuclei that are involved in posture

153

what extends through the mesencephalon and connects the 3rd and 4th ventricles

cerebral aqueduct

154

what connects the cerebellum to the mesencephalon

superior cerebellar peduncles

155

things associated with the mesencephalon

posture
cerebral aqueduct
superor cerebellar peduncles

156

what are the three peduncles in the brainstem and where do they go

superior : mesecephalon
middle: pons
inferior: medulla

157

what important centers are associated with the medulla oblongota

cardiac
vasomotor
respiratory

158

most axons in the pyramids do what

decussation/cross/contralateralization

159

what is the second largest part of the brain

cerebellum

160

the convoluted surface in the cerebellum is called what

folia

161

what is the cerebellum composed of

left and right hemisphere

162

what does each hemisphere consists of

3 lobes
superior
middle
inferior

163

what separates the left and right cerebellar hemispheres

vermis

164

what does the vermis do

receives sensory and helps maintain balance

separate right and left hemisphere

165

what is the outer layer of the cerebellum called and what is it made of

cortex made of gray matter

166

what is the inner layer of the cerebellum made of

white matter

167

what is the deep inner layer of the cerebellum composed of

grey matter and cerebellar nuclei

168

what are the name of the tracts that connect the cerebellum to the midbrain, pons, and medulla?

peduncles

169

function of cerebellum

"cat portion" fine tunes skeletal muscle
stores previously learned movement
maintain equilibrium and balance
recieves proprioreceptive (sensory)

170

limbic system=

emotions

171

where does the limbic system draw from

nuclei with past memories of physical sensation and integrating it with emotional states

172

the limbic system is __ to begin with, but __ take over

electrical to begin with, but hormones take over

173

structures commonly recognized as part of limbic system

hippocampus
amygdaloid body
olfactory
anterior thalamic nuclei, habenular nuclei, spetal nuclei