Brain and Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Brain and Nervous System Deck (50):
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Afferent Neurons

Sensory, carry incoming info

1

Efferent Neurons

Motor neurons, carry outgoing info

2

Nerves

Connect CNS to muscles, glands, and sense organs

3

Central Nervous System

Brain and Spine

4

Peripheral Nervous System

Autonomic and Somatic Nervous Systems

5

Autonomic system

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems

6

Somatic Nervous System

Intentional movement of skeletal muscles

7

Sympathetic nervous system

Arousal, "fight or flight", non-deliberate

8

Parasympathetic nervous system

Calming, "rest and digest", non-deliberate

9

Dendrites

Receives messages from other cells

10

Myelin sheath

Protects and insulates the axon

11

Axon

Carries messages to other cells

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Axon terminal

Branches at end of axon

13

Soma

Body of the cell

14

Action potential

Firing of the neuron

15

Resting potential

Normal non-firing state

16

Acetylcholine

Neurotransmitter, memory and learning

17

Dopamine

Neurotransmitter, movement, learning, memory, emotion

18

Serotonin

Neurotransmitter, Mood, sleep, appetite, arousal

19

Norepinephrine

Neurotransmitter, Nervous system, alertness, arousal

20

GABA

Neurotransmitter, Inhibitor, decrease neural activity

21

Glutamate

Neurotransmitter, excitatory, increase neural activity

22

ESB

Electrical stimulation of brain to stimulate neural activity

23

EEG

Measures electrical activity in brain

24

CT

X-Ray of brain

25

PET

Detect radioactive glucose while performing a task

26

MRI

Look at 3-d structure of brain

27

Hindbrain

Basic bodily functions, contains the cerebellum, pons, reticular formation, and medulla

28

Cerebellum

Controls voluntary and involuntary motor movements and balance

29

Pons

Relays messages between bitum, cerebellum, and cortex

30

Reticular formation

Important role in arousal

31

Medulla

Controls heartbeat, breathing, and swallowing

32

Limbic system

Thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate cortex

33

Hippocampus

Formation of new memories

34

Amygdala

Fear and anger

35

Hypothalamus

Hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, reward center, endocrine system

36

Thalamus

Relay between sensory organs and cortex

37

Cingulate cortex

Role in emotional and cognitive processing

38

Cortex

4 lobes, 2 hemispheres

39

Frontal lobes

Executive functions, motor cortex

40

Parietal lobes

Somatosensory cortex, body sensations, and touch

41

Temporal lobes

Auditory cortex, language, learning, and memory

42

Occipital lobes

Visual cortex

43

Language

Visual cortex, angular gyrus, Wernicke's area, Brocas's area, motor cortex

44

Pituitary gland

Master gland

45

Pineal gland

Melatonin

46

Thyroid

Growth, metabolism, thyroxin

47

Adrenal glands

Epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol

48

Pancreas

Insulin and glucagon

49

Gonads

Male and female sex organs