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Flashcards in Brainstem Deck (41):
1

The inferior olivary nucleus projects solely to what through what

cerebellum
inferior cerebellar peduncle

2

What are the two components of the inferior cerebellar peduncle and their relative size?

juxtarestiform body (smaller)
restiform body (larger)

3

Where are the second order neurons in the medial lemniscal system?

NC & NG

4

The hypoglossal trigone lies over what nucleus?

Hypoglossal nucleus

5

The vagal trigone lies over what nucleus?

DMN vagus

6

What is underneath the facial colliculus?

Genu of the facial nerve

7

What is underenat the vestibular area?

vestibular nuclei

8

The remnants of the sulcus limitans lies between

the facial colliculus and the vestibular area

9

All cranial nerve nuclei are arranged within the brainstem medially-laterally as (general functions):

motor, somatomotor, automatic motor, sensory

10

Which three cranial nerves arise at ponto-medullary junction?

VI, VII, VIII

11

The medial 3/5ths of the basis pedunculi consist of what fibres?The other 2/5ths of the basis pedunculi consist of what fibres?

3/5th descending fibres of the corticospinal tract
2/5th corticopontine fibres

12

What is the function of the superior colliculus

integrates visual information for execution of visual reflexes

13

What is the function of the inferior colliculus?

associated with the auditory system
is part of the pathway which conveys information about hearing, speech, other auditory information
sensory nucleus

14

What does the superior cerebellar peduncle do?

Relay information OUT of cerebellum

15

What muscles are innervated by CN III?

inferior oblique
superior rectal
medial rectal
inferior rectal

16

CN II goes directly into what area of the brain

diencephalon (visual pathway)

17

What is the interpeduncular fossa?

depression between basis pedunculi

18

What three nuclei are associated with the inferior olive?

large principal olivary nucleus
smaller and older dorsal accessory and medial accessory olivary nuclei

19

What are the cells of origin for the medial lemniscus?

nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus

20

What is the inferior salivatory nucleus?

Associated with medulla
Parasympathetic preganglionic outflow via CN IX
Goes to parotid gland

21

What cranial nerves exit at the ponto-medullary junction?

VI, VII, VIII

22

How many nuclear groups are associated with the trigeminal nerve? How many sensory? How many motor?

3 -s ensory
1 - motor

23

At what level of the brainstem do the corticospinal tracts stop being somatotopically organized?

caudal basilar pons

24

How is the corticospinal tract somatotopically organized?

neck fibres - medial
lower limb fibers - lateral

25

What types of structures are included in the pontine tegmentum?

cranial nerve related structures
sensory pathways
reticular formation

26

What types of structures are included in the basilar pons?

motor pathways
some cerebellar related structures

27

Describe the path of the corticospinal pathway starting at the cortex

cortex --> internal capsule --> basis pedunculi --> basilar pons --> pyramidal tract

28

Describe the ascending medial lemniscal pathway from 1st order neuron to cortex

psueounipolar neuron in DRG --> medial bundle of dorsal root --> FC & FG --> NC & NG --> internal arcuate fibres --> sensory decussation --> medial lemniscus --> VPL --> somatosensory cortex

29

What cranial nerves contribute to the solitary tract and nucleus? What type of information do they carry? What ganglia do they involve?

CN VIII - taste from anterior 2/3 tongue - geniculate ganglion
CN IX - taste from posterior 1/3 tongue - chemoreceptor input from carotids - general visceral sensation - inferior ganglion
CN X - baroreceptor info from aortics - general visceral sensation - nodose ganglion

30

What information does the solitary tract & nucleus carry?

taste
visceral sensation

31

What is included in the vestibular apparatus?

semicircular canals, ampullae, utricle, saccule

32

What vestibular nuclei are found in upper medulla? In caudal pons?

Medial & inferior - upper medulla
Superior & lateral - caudal pons

33

What cranial nerves contribute to the spinal tract of trigeminal nerve? What ganglia do they involve?

CN V - semilunar ganglion
CN VII - geniculate ganglion
CN IX - superior ganglion
CN X - jugular ganglion

34

Describe the path of the cortico-pontine-cerebellar pathway. WHat fibres are involved? Where do they synapse?

frontal, occipital parietal regions of cortex --> basilar pons (synapse in pontine nuclei) --> MCP --> cerebellum
corticopontine fibres
transverse fibres of pons

35

What is the trapezoid body?

crossing fibres of auditory pathway
cochlear division of CN VIII (conveys information related to hearing)

36

What are the muscles of mastication innervated by the motor nucleus of the trigeminal?

medial & lateral pterygoid
masseter
temporalis
anterior belly of digastric
tensor tympani

37

What information is carried in each of the four trigeminal nuclei?

principal sensory nucleus - fine touch
spinal nucleus - pain & temp
mesencephalic nucleus - proprio
motor nucleus - muscles of mastication

38

Which nucleus associated with control of extra-ocular muscles also has a parasympathetic component which influences smooth muscles in the eyeball?

CN III

39

Why does the pars compacta appear pigemented?


neurons of pars compacta are dopaminergic and metabolism of dopamine produces melanin why pars compacta has pigemented appearance

40

Where are we likely to lose somatotopy in the descending corticospinal tracts?

At the level of the basilar pons

41

Muscle atrophy is a hallmark of UMN or LMN lesion?

LMN