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MHD2 Neuro > Brainstem > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brainstem Deck (74):
1

What are the functions of the brainstem?

It has conduit, cranial nerve and integrative functions.

(1) CONDUIT- acts like a "pipe" to transfer info from the brain to the spinal cord and back.

(2) CRANIAL NERVE- the brainstem takes care of the sensory and motor functions for the head. The spinal cord does this function for the body

(3) INTEGRATIVE FUNCTIONS- reticular formation controls maintenance of consciousness

2

Unique features of the medulla.

- It has Pyramids, olives and is underneath about half of the 4th ventricle.

- Affiliated with the inferior cerebellar peduncles

3

Unique features of the pons.

-Has the basal pons which hangs down
-Affiliated with the middle cerebellar peduncles
- Found underneath part of the 4th ventricle

4

Unique features of the midbrain

- Affiliated with the superior cerebellar peduncles
- Affiliated with the cerebral peduncles
- Has the superior and inferior colliculi (2 superior, 2 inferior)
- Has cerebral aqueduct aka aqueduct of sylvius

5

How man cerebellar peduncles? How many cerebral?

3 cerebellar
1 cerebral

6

Where does the brainstem live?

It lives in the POSTERIOR FOSSA, which is composed of:

FLOOR- The occiput and some temporal bone

ROOF- tentorium cerebelli (sheet of dura)

7

What does fossa does CN III exit?

The interpeduncular fossa

8

Part of medulla which is not under the 3rd ventricle.

Closed medulla. Also known as caudal.

9

What does the cerebral aqueduct connect?

3rd ventricle to 4th ventricle

10

Superior colliculi general function? Inferior?

SUPERIOR- Vision
INFERIOR- Hearing

11

Superior cerebellar peduncle is associated with the...

Midbrain

12

Middle cerebellar peduncle is associated with the...

Pons

13

Inferior cerebellar peduncle is associated with the...

Medulla

14

Which cerebellar peduncle is the largest one?

Middle

15

Cerebellar peduncles are also known as...

Feet of the cerebellum. These are white fibers going to the cerebellum.

16

Which peduncle(s) are all afferent to the cerebellum?

Middle and Inferior

17

Which peduncle(s) are efferent from the cerebellum?

Superior-- except for the ventral spinal cerebellar tract, which enters the cerebellum

18

"Slo-Aim"

SLO:
The SUPERIOR colliculi, talk to the LATERAL geniculate, which is dealing with OPTIC functions.

AIM:
The AUDITORY system uses the INFERIOR colliculi which communicate with the MEDIAL geniculate

19

Cerebral peduncles

Attach to the midbrain and connect the cerebrum with the brainstem and thus the spinal cord.

20

What is something most peduncles, both cerebral and cerebellar, have in common?

They consist of fibers which are mostly white matter (myelinated)

21

What does the olive of the medulla do?

Connects the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum.

22

What makes up the pyramids of the medulla?

They consists of pyramidal tract fibers of the CST. They decussate as the medulla becomes the spinal cord.

23

The 4th ventricle sits...

above the medulla and below the cerebellum

24

4th ventricle openings

Inferiorly (2)- The obex opens into the central canal

Superiorly (2)- The aqueduct of sylvius opens into it

25

What is the big nerve coming out of the Pons?

CN V

26

Cisterna magnum

Reflection of arachnoid where CSF can gather and then flow all over the CNS

27

What is significant about CN IV

It is the only CN to cross and come from the dorsum of the brainstem

28

Where does CN VI come from in relation to the brainstem?

The ponto-medullary juncture

29

Arbor vitae are associated with the...

Cerebellum

30

The 4th ventricle is what shape from above?

Diamond shaped

31

What is lateral to the 3rd ventricle?

The thalamus (one on either side)

32

What is the other name for the 4 colliculi?

Tectum

33

Mossy Fibers

Fibers which come from the pons and cross and go through the middle cerebellar peduncles

34

Most important bump on the floor of the 4th ventricle,

Facial colliculus

35

Where is the pineal?

It projects out near the back of the 3rd ventricle

36

Lateral geniculate nucleus

A relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway. Receives a major sensory input from the retina.

37

Back of thalamus is also known as...

Pulvinar

38

Mammillary bodies

2 bumps on the ventral side of the brainstem which function in memory

39

CST

Corticospinal Tract

40

STT

Spinothalamic tract

41

ML

Medial lemniscus

42

ION

Inferior Olivary Nucleus

43

MCP

Middle Cerebellar Peduncle

44

SCP

Superior Cerebellar Peduncle

45

SCP X's

Superior Cerebellar Peduncles Decussate

46

RN

Red Nucleus

47

SN

Substantia Nigra

48

IAF

Internal Arcuate Fibers- crossing fibers of the dorsal column pathway.

49

Nucleus gracilis handles what?

Lower extremities

50

Nucleus cuneatus handles what?

Upper extremities

51

Spinal Tract and Nucleus of CN V does what?

Relays pain and temperature from the head

52

The Spinal Nucleus of CN V is equivalent to what nucleus in the spinal cord?

Nucleus proprius

53

The spinal trigeminal tract descends from...

The pons (where CN V enters and exits) and runs down into the cervical cord to synapse on the spinal trigeminal nucleus. It relays pain and temperature from the head.

54

MLF

Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus

Pathway that runs down and connect the cranial nerves controlling eye movement and the vestibular system, allowing you to move your head in response to loud noises, flashes of light etc.

55

Deep Cerebellar Nuclei

Nuclei which sit deep in the cerebellum.

Fat Guys Eat Donuts

(1) Fastigial
(2) Globose
(3) Emboliform
(4) Dentate

56

Pontine Gray Nuclei

Diffuse Nuclei in the Pons

57

PAG

Peri Aqueductal Gray

Modulation of pain and Autonomic Functions

58

What does the medial lemniscus enter and how?

Enters the thalamus, upside down.

59

Where does the corticle spinal tract run? Where did it originate from?

-Runs in the center of cerebral peduncle.

-Originates from pyramidal cells of area 4 of the motor cortex.

60

Degeneration of _____ ______ plays a role in Parkinson's disease

Substantia nigra (domaine producing cells)

61

Red nucleus deals with what kind of movements?

Gross.

62

If you see the red nucleus, you're in...

Midbrain

63

Reticular Core

Involved in multiple functions:

-Control of movement
-Modulation of transmission of pain information
-Contains autonomic reflex circuitry
-The control of arousal and consciousness

64

Blue Dot

Locus Ceruleus. Contains noradrenalin (norepinephrine) and projects all over the brain.

Works to adjust the background level of sensitivity, deals with arousal/sleep, emotions etc.

65

Substantia nigra contains...

Dopamine

66

VTA

Ventral Tegmental Area

Contains Dopamine

67

Raphe cells contain...

Serotonin

68

What cells contain Acetylcholine

Neurons of the Rostral Brainstem and Basal Forebrain

69

What are the key nuclei in the basal forebrain that contain Ach?

Basal nucleus of Meynert and the Septal Nuclei

70

A lack of Acetylcholine is oft associated with...

Alzheimer's disease

71

SE Raphe's Substantial Dopey Blue NE's

Mneumonic for...

Raphe- Serotonin
Substantia Nigra- Dopamine
Locus Ceruleus (blue dots)- Noradrenalin

72

Most important circle of willis vessel in regards to the medulla

PICA- which is a branch of the vertebral

73

3 Important Cerebellar Arteries

-Superior Cerebellar Artery (SCA)- comes off basilar
-Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (AICA)- comes off basilar
-Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (PICA)

74

Wallenberg Syndrome

Occurs following an occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)

Characterized by sensory deficits affecting the torso and extremities on the OPPOSITE side of the infarction, and sensory deficits affecting the face and cranial nerves on the SAME SIDE as the infarct.