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Neuro Exam 2 > Brainstem > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brainstem Deck (27):
1

Brainstem FX

connects diencephalon to cpinal cord and genetically wired auto-control mechanism

2

Brainstem doesn't require experience t/f

true

3

brainstem structures

1. midbrain
2. pons
3. medulla

4

Corticospinal fibers include

1. corona radiata
2. internal capsule
3. pes peduncle/crus cerebri
4. diffuse cotricospinal fibers
5. pyramidal tract
6. lateral corticospial tract

5

Corona Radiata

cerebrum

6

internal capsule

Diencephalon

7

Pes Peduncle/Crus Cerebri

Brainstem

8

Diffuse Corticospinal Fibers

Pons

9

Pyramidal Tract

Medulla

10

Lateral Corticospinal Tract

Spinal Cord

11

Lateral and third ventricles

butterfly
wings: 2 lateral ventricles
vertical slit: third ventricle

12

cerebral aqueduct

aperture in midbrain connecting third and fourth ventricles

13

Fourth ventricle

dorsal to pons

14

Corticospinal tracts: MOTOR

1. lateral corticospinal
2. anterior corticospinal

15

lateral corticospinal

crosses @ pyramidal decussation and fine movements of limbs

16

anterior corticospinal

crosses within spinal column and central axial and girdle muscles

17

Dorsal columns of corticospinal

sensory: fine touch and proprioception: both cross @ medial lemniscus in lower medulla, fasciculous gracilis (sacral and lumbar), and fasciculous cuneatus (thoracic and cervical)

18

Anterolateral system

cross in spinal column usually after ascending a segment or two
-Spinothalamic (pain and temp)
-Spinoreticular (arousal in response to pain)
-Spinotectal (orients head to stimuli)

19

Brainstem Anatomical

1. ascending and descending fiber tracts
2. nuclei groups related to cranial nerve functions and vital visceral (cardiac and respiratory) and reflexive functions

20

Anatomic structures of midbrain: caudal

1. cerebral aqueduct
2. inferior colliculus
3. superior cerebellar peduncle and decussation
4. medial lemniscus

21

Anatomic structures of midbrain: Rostral

1. pes pedunculi (crus cerebri)
2. substantia nigra
3. red nucleus
4. superior colliculus
5. central gray
6. cerebral aqueduct
7. oculomotor nucleus and nerve
8. medial lemniscus

22

Midbrain syndromes

1. ipsilateral paralysis of upper and lower limbs and trunk
2. ipsilateral paralysis of eyeball muscle with eye fixed
3. contralateral limb incoordination (ataxia)
4. loss of contralateral discriminative touch
5. cranial nerve symptoms and frequent altered consciousness

23

Pontine syndromes

1. ipsilateral hemiplegia (upper and lower extremities)
2. contralateral losses of discriminative (position and vibratory sensation) touch
3. medially deviated eye (paralysis of ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle)
4. diplopia (double vision) on gaze toward side of lesion (involving abducens nerve)
5. unsteady gait
6. ipsilateral facial palsy
7. vertigo, nausea, and deafness in ipsilateral ear

24

Medullary Syndromes: Medial Medullary (anterior spinal artery) syndrome

hypoglossal (CN-XII) Nucleus/nerve, medial lemniscus fibers, and pyramidal (corticospinal) tract fibers all affected

25

Deficits of Medial medullary syndrome

contralateral hemiplegia, contralateral hemianesthesia, dysarthria and dysphagia

26

Medullary syndromes: Lateral medullary (posterior/inferior cerebellar artery) Syndrome

Affects Vagus, glossopharyngeal, vestibular, spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus, inferior cerebellar peduncle, spinothalamic tract

27

Deficits of Lateral Medullary Syndrome

loss of pain and temp from ipsilateral face, dysphagia, dysarthria, vertigo, ataxia in ipsilateral upper and lower limbs, and contralateral loss of pain and temperature