Brainstem functions & Autonomic System Flashcards Preview

Advanced Human Physiology > Brainstem functions & Autonomic System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brainstem functions & Autonomic System Deck (45):
1

The function of the Medulla Oblongata is...

  •  responsible for several functions of the autonomous nervous system which include:
    • respiratory via cheoreceptors of the carotid and aortic bodies

    • vasomotor via baroreceptors

    • heart rate (cardiovascular center) - sympathetic NS & PSNS

2

Nerves that originate in the medulla oblongata are:

  • CN IX - glossopharyngeal
  • CN X - vagus
  • CN XI - accessory
  • CN XII - hypoglossal

3

Spinal tracts that cross at the medulla oblongata are:

  • Dorsal columns
  • Lateral corticospinal tract

4

The function of the Pons is:

  • Secondary respiratory center
    • apneutic and pneumotaxic centers
  • Damage: will not have smooth transition from inspiration to expiration

5

Nerves that originate in the Pons are:

  • CN 5 
  • CN 6 
  • CN 7 
  • Cn 8 

6

Elevated regions of the brain are called

Gyri

7

Fissures in the brain are called

sulci

8

The Cerebrum consists of

  •                 Cerebral cortex (exterior layer of gray matter), white matter and basal ganglia (islands of gray matter in interior)

9

The Cerebral cortex (exterior layer of the cerebrum) is sometimes called ________ and is composed of

  • the “executive suite”, the conscious mind

  • composed of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and associated glia and blood vessels

10

The cerebral cortex has the following three types of functional areas:

  • Motor areas
  • Sensory areas

  • Association areas

11

All neurons in the cerebral cortex are

inteneurons

12

Each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is concerned with the sensory and motor functions of

  • the contralateral (opposite) side of the body
    • Damage to one hemisphere will affect the functions of the opposite side of the body

13

The primary motor cortex is located _______; it's function is _________.

  • In the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex on the precentral gyrus between the central sulcus and premotor cortex
  • control of precise or skilled voluntary movement
    • illustrated by the motor homunculus

14

Is the primary motor cortex ipsilateral or contralatera?

  • Contralateral
    • DAMAGE will result in loss of voluntary control of muscles on the opposite side of the body

15

Body regions of fine motor control as illustrated by the motor homunculus are:

  • Lips, face, eye, thumb and fingers

16

Body regions of course motor control as illustrated by the motor homunculus are:

  • Wrist, elbow, knees, toes, arm

17

The Premotor cortex is located ___________ and its function is _________

  • anterior to the precentral gyrus in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex
  • help plan movements

18

Broca’s Area is located ____________ and its function is ____________

  • Anterior to the inferior region of the premotor cortex within the frontal lobe
  • As a motor speech area which directs the muscles involved in speech production

19

What is Broca's aphasia

  • A type of aphasia where comprehension is usually preserved, but language production is not fluent.  Aka expressive aphasia
  • The language deficit ranges from muteness to slowed, simple speech using key words.
    • They often express nouns as only singular and eliminate adjectives or adverbs (eg. “the large gray cat” becomes “gray cat”)

20

The Prefrontal cortex is located __________; its function is ___________

  • At the anterior portion of the frontal lobe
  • Function is integration of visual, auditory, and sensory info and plans the proper motor response

21

The Parietal lobe somatic sensory cortex (aka. Postcentral gyrus) is located ___________; its function is __________

  • Postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe
  • To receive information from the somatic sensory receptors of the skin and from proprioreceptors in skeletal muscles, joints and tendons and identify the body region being stimulated (spatial discrimination)
    • represented by the sensory homunculus

22

Regions of high sensitivity (many receptors) as represented by the sensory homunculus are:

  • Large: fingers, hands, cheek

23

Regions of low sensitivity (few receptors) as represented by the sensory homunculus are:

  • Small: elbows, knees, back

24

The location of the somatosensory association cortex is __________; its function is ___________.

  • Just posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex within the parietal lobe
  • Integrate of sensory inputs (temperature, pressure etc) relayed by the primary somatosensory cortex to produce understanding of an object
  • DAMAGE results in inability to recognise objects by touch

25

The gustatory cortex is located ________; it's function is ________

  • insula (parietal) deep to the temporal lobe
  • perception of taste

26

The temporal lobe consists of 

  • Primary auditory cortex
  • Auditory association cortex
  • Olfactory cortex

27

The primary auditory cortex is located _________; it's function is _______

  • Temporal lobe
  • perception of sound

28

The auditory association area is located ________; it's function is ________.

  • Temporal lobe
  • memory to interpret perceived sound

29

Werniche's Aphasia is 

  • aka. receptive aphasia of the left posterior temporal lobe
  • Patient has the ability to speak, but does not understand being information being heard
  • Cannot respond appropriately
  • May have auditory hallucinations

30

The Occipital lobe consists of

  • Primary visual cortex
  • Visual association area

31

The Primary visual cortex is located ______; it's function is _________

  • Occipital lobe
  • perception of light

32

The visual association center is located _________; it's function is ________

  • Occipital lobe
  • integration and interpretation of visual inputs

33

The basic function of the cerebellum is

  • control and integration of somatic motor activities
    • smooth pursuit of movement
      • Damage results in past pointing
  • vestibular and postural reflexes

34

Past pointing is _________ and is caused by damage to the _______

  • reaching past an object and using the eyes to walk back to pick it up
  • Damage to the cerebellum

35

36

The left side of the cerebrum is associated with strengths in

  • logical thought
  • problem solving, particularly with math
  • Motor control
  • Speech

37

The right side of cerebrum is associated with strengths in 

  • intuitive thought
  • subtle meanings of thought
  • understanding jokes
  • 3D spatialization
  • musical aptitude

38

The Diencephalon consists of

  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Epithalamus - Pineal body

39

The Thalamus is located in the ________; it's function is __________

  • diencephalon
  • a relay station for all sensory information
    • Govenor of sensory information
    • Integrates all sensory info before reaching the cerebral cortex

40

The Hypothalamus is located _______; it's function is _________

  • maintenance of homeostasis through regulation of body "set" points 
  • Autonomic control center
  • Endocrine control center
  • Provides motivation for behavioral drives

41

The pineal body is located _________; it's function is _______.

  • part of the epithalamus within the diencephalon
  • production of melatonin
    • regulates circadian rhythm
    • regulates reproductive cycles

42

The mesencephalon is located _______; it's function is________

  • contains visual and auditory reflex centers
  • pupillary reflexes - sensory, motor, pupilloconstriction and accommodation reflex
  • contains subcortical motor centers
  • contains nuclei for CN III (occulomotor) and IV (trochlear)
  • contains projection fibers which carry sensory impulses to other regions of the brain

43

The superior colliculi is the center for 

visual reflex

44

The inferior colliculi is the center for

auditory reflex

45

The substantia nigra and red nuclei are

subcortical motor centers