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Flashcards in Brainstem Overview Deck (45):
0

2 big functions of brainstem

reflexes/unconscious behaviours
modulation of arousal/conscious states

1

Brainstem starts and ends where?

mamillary bodies rostrally
pyramidal decussation caudally

2

what are the 2 pairs of bumps on the midbrain called? for what?

superior and inferior colliculi
eye movement and hearing

3

what linked with cerebellum?

pons

4

pons is limited by what structure?

4th ventricle

5

what is on the floor of the 4th ventricle?

facial colliculi
1. abducens nucleus
2. fibres of CN VII

6

what is located caudally on the medulla

dorsal columns
nuclei: gracile/cuneate

7

midbrain have massive what matter tracts called? for what?

cerebral peduncles connecting cerebrum to midbrain

8

how is the cerebellum attached to the pons?

via 3 peduncles
superior
middle
inferior

9

medulla rostrally
1. contains 2 bulges, they are?
2. what of the pyramids?

1. olivary nuclei
2. pyramidal decussation

10

what is the tectum?

'roof' of the brainstem. ie. midbrain

11

what is tegmentum?

continuous with spinal cord

12

what do you find in the tectum?

colliculi of the midbrain

13

what do you find in the tegmentum? 2 things

cranial nerves
reticular formation

14

what do you find in the basis?

descending motor pathways
corticospinal
cerebellum

15

generally the ventral basis has what? vs. dorsal?

ventral: motor
dorsal: cranial nerves and nuclei

16

general somatic nerves innervate 2 things?

skeletal muscle
skin

17

general visceral nerves innervate 3 things

smooth muscle
blood vessels
glands

18

what does the C1 dermatome innervate?

NOTHING.

20

cranial nerves do what?

supply somatic and visceral motor/sensory info to head

21

Which CN are exclusively motor?

CNIII, IV, VI Eyes
CN XI, XII

22

Which CNs are exclusively sensory?

CN I, II, VIII

23

which CNs are mixed?

V
VII
IX
X

24

What is the rule of 4 for CNs?

Midbrain: 3-4 (1-2 above midbrain)
Pons: 5-8
Medulla: 9-12

25

where do cranial nerve nuclei sensory develop from?

Alar Plate

26

during embryological development, cranial nerve nuclei lie where?

adjacent to ventricular system

27

where do cranial nerve nuclei motor develop from?

basal plate

28

cranial nerve nuclei, which are lateral? which are medial?

lateral: sensory
medial: motor

29

how many columns for cranial nerve nuclei?

6
3 motor: medial
3 sensory: lateral

30

what are the 3 cranial nerve nuclei motor columns?

general somatic
branchial motor
general visceral

31

what are the 3 cranial nerve nuclei sensory columns?

general and special visceral
general somatic
special somatic

32

What is reticular formation in the tegmentum?

millions of neurons communicating with each other to regulate cranial nerve nuclei function

33

rostral reticular formation does? where?

alert conscious state
midbrain/upper pons

34

Caudal reticular formation does? where?

reflexes, autonomic functions
pons/medulla

35

rostral reticular formation does 2 things

ascending reticular activating system
long projection fibres (NT determined)

36

where is the ventrolateral medullary reticular formation?

caudal reticular formation

37

what does the ventrolateral medullary reticular formation do viscerally? how?

Vagus:
GI: swallow/vomit
Resp: cough, rhythm, sneeze, hiccup
cardio: HR

38

3 major pathways in long fibre tracts?

Ascending: Dorsal column/anterolateral
descending: corticospinal

39

What is the dorsal column medial lemnicus system for? crosses?

light touch, vibration,
crosses caudal medulla

40

Anterolateral system for what crosses?

pain/temp
crosses in spinal cord

41

corticospinal tract for?crosses?

motor function
crosses pyramidal decussation

42

pyramidal decussation which tract?

corticospinal

43

pain/temp is received by which system?

anterolateral

44

Dorsal brainstem generally contains? 2 things:

cranial nerve nuclei
reticular formation

45

ventral (basis) brainstem generally contains

corticospinal
midbrain: cerebral peduncles
pons:cerebellar peduncles
medulla: olivary nuclei