Flashcards in Brainstem Overview Deck (45):
2 big functions of brainstem
modulation of arousal/conscious states
Brainstem starts and ends where?
mamillary bodies rostrally
pyramidal decussation caudally
what are the 2 pairs of bumps on the midbrain called? for what?
superior and inferior colliculi
eye movement and hearing
what linked with cerebellum?
pons is limited by what structure?
what is on the floor of the 4th ventricle?
1. abducens nucleus
2. fibres of CN VII
what is located caudally on the medulla
midbrain have massive what matter tracts called? for what?
cerebral peduncles connecting cerebrum to midbrain
how is the cerebellum attached to the pons?
via 3 peduncles
1. contains 2 bulges, they are?
2. what of the pyramids?
1. olivary nuclei
2. pyramidal decussation
what is the tectum?
'roof' of the brainstem. ie. midbrain
what is tegmentum?
continuous with spinal cord
what do you find in the tectum?
colliculi of the midbrain
what do you find in the tegmentum? 2 things
what do you find in the basis?
descending motor pathways
generally the ventral basis has what? vs. dorsal?
dorsal: cranial nerves and nuclei
general somatic nerves innervate 2 things?
general visceral nerves innervate 3 things
what does the C1 dermatome innervate?
cranial nerves do what?
supply somatic and visceral motor/sensory info to head
Which CN are exclusively motor?
CNIII, IV, VI Eyes
CN XI, XII
Which CNs are exclusively sensory?
CN I, II, VIII
which CNs are mixed?
What is the rule of 4 for CNs?
Midbrain: 3-4 (1-2 above midbrain)
where do cranial nerve nuclei sensory develop from?
during embryological development, cranial nerve nuclei lie where?
adjacent to ventricular system
where do cranial nerve nuclei motor develop from?
cranial nerve nuclei, which are lateral? which are medial?
how many columns for cranial nerve nuclei?
3 motor: medial
3 sensory: lateral
what are the 3 cranial nerve nuclei motor columns?
what are the 3 cranial nerve nuclei sensory columns?
general and special visceral
What is reticular formation in the tegmentum?
millions of neurons communicating with each other to regulate cranial nerve nuclei function
rostral reticular formation does? where?
alert conscious state
Caudal reticular formation does? where?
reflexes, autonomic functions
rostral reticular formation does 2 things
ascending reticular activating system
long projection fibres (NT determined)
where is the ventrolateral medullary reticular formation?
caudal reticular formation
what does the ventrolateral medullary reticular formation do viscerally? how?
Resp: cough, rhythm, sneeze, hiccup
3 major pathways in long fibre tracts?
Ascending: Dorsal column/anterolateral
What is the dorsal column medial lemnicus system for? crosses?
light touch, vibration,
crosses caudal medulla
Anterolateral system for what crosses?
crosses in spinal cord
corticospinal tract for?crosses?
crosses pyramidal decussation
pyramidal decussation which tract?
pain/temp is received by which system?
Dorsal brainstem generally contains? 2 things:
cranial nerve nuclei