Brar- Amino Acid and Peptides Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Brar- Amino Acid and Peptides Deck (45):
1

Out the 20 Amino Acids(AA), which is not chiral and does not have a beta carbon?

Glycine

2

What part of the AA gives it it's individual property?

R-Group

3

What 3 things do amino acids serve as substrates for?

1. Generation of energy
2. Protien Synthesis
3. Synthesis: Heme, Purines, Melanin, Pyrimidines

4

What is a good example of AA changing variations?

The H1N1 virus

5

Alpha or Beta, which amino acid has the amine group and carboxyl group attached to the same carbon?

Alpha

6

In Beta AA, How far apart are the amine and carboxyl group from one another?

two carbons apart
O=C - CH2 - CH2NH3

7

What type of amino acids are used in natural racemic proteins?

L-isomer and Alpha form amino acids

8

Which type of AA is an active Venomous protein (not on the slides).

D amino

9

What is the role for D-amino acids in bacteria?

govern stationary phase cell wall remodeling

10

Do D-amino acids modulate synthesis of peptidoglycan?

Yes, involving D-Met, D-Leu (Vibrio Cholerae)
D-Tyr and D-Phe (Bacillus subtilis)

11

T or F, The peptide bond is planar and favors the cis form over the trans form?

False. While it is true the bond is planar, the trans form is favored over the cis form due to a partial double bond characteristic.

12

In the presence of what product, will a peptide bond hydrolyze.
Hint: What speeds up a reaction?

A Catalyst

13

What determines how the protein folds?

Side chains

14

Are branched chain AA polar or non polar?

Very non polar (hydrophobic)

15

Name 3 branched AA

1. Isoleucine
2. Leucine
3. Valine

16

Name the 2 functions of Hydroxyl AA's.

1. R-Groups contribute heavily on the formation of hydrogen bonds
2. Form Covalent bonds with Carbs in glycoproteins and with Phosphate in phosphoproteins

17

What are the 5 most COMMON AA related disorders?

Cystinuria, Histidinemia, Phenylketonuria, Methylmalonyl CoA mutase deficiency, Albinism

18

Name the 4 most RARE type of AA related disorders.

1. Homocystinuria
2. Alkaptonuria
3. Maple Syrup Urine Disease
4. Cystathioninuria

19

A deficiency in cystathionine synthase leads to the accumulation of what two AA's?

Homocysteine and methionine

20

For Optometrist, a deficiency in cystathionine synthase can cause what?

Lens dislocation

21

What disease is caused by a deficiency of branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase?

Maple Syrup Urine Disease

22

Name the 4 issues Complete deficiency leads to in Maple Syrup Disease.

1. Severe Mental Retardation
2.Acidosis
3. Sweet odor to urine
4. Early death

23

Name 9 Essential AA's that must be obtained by diet.

1.Valine
2.Threonine
3.Leucine
4.Methionine
5.Isoleucine
6. Lysine
7.Phenylalanine
8. Histidine
9. Tryptophan

24

What is the name of the disease that has a lack of phenylalanine hydroxylase

Phenylketonuria (PKU)
-Can cause mental retardtion, seizures, spascity and other neuro issues.

25

Is Aspartame helpful or harmful if there is a lack of PKU

Harmful

26

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Cysteine

Cys and C

27

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Histidine

His and H

28

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Isoleucine

Ile and I

29

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Methionine

Met and M

30

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Serine

Ser and S

31

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Valine

Val and V

32

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Alanine

Ala and A

33

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Glycine

Gly and G

34

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Leucine

Leu and L

35

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Proline

Pro and P

36

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Threonine

Thr and T

37

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Arginine

Arg and R

38

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Asparagine

Asn and N

39

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Asparatate

Asp and D

40

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Glutamate

Glu and E

41

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Glutamine

Gln and Q

42

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Phenylalanine

Phe and F

43

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Tyrosine

Tyr and Y

44

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Tryptophan

Trp and W

45

What is the 3 letter and single letter for Lysine

Lys and K