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Flashcards in Breast anatomy and histology Deck (23):
1

Describe the basic structure of non-lactating breast

Made up of 15-25 lobes, each consisting of a compound tubulo-acinar gland which drains via a series of ducts leading to the nipple

2

What is adjacent to the secretory tissue?

Dense fibrous tissue surrounded by adipose tissue

3

Describe the duct system

Terminal ductules lead into an intralobular duct which leads into the lactiferous duct for that lobe.
The lactiferous ducts leads to the nipple, passing through an expanded duct region near the nipple termed the lactiferous sinus

4

Where is the epithelium columnar?

In the larger ducts

5

Where is the epithelium cuboidal or low columnar?

In secretory acini

6

What are the nipples covered by?

highly pigmented kerotinized stratified squamous epithelium

7

What makes up the core of the nipple?

Dense, irregular connective tissue mixed with bundles of smooth muscle

8

what happens to the duct as it approaches the surface?

It becomes lined by stratified squamous epithelium, deeper, it is lined by stratified cuboidal epithelium

9

What is present at the deepest layer?

One cell thick lining

10

What happens to the breast during the menstrual cycle? (non pregnant)

During luteal phase: epithelial cells increase in height, the lumina of the ducts becomes enlarged and small amounts of secretions appear in the ducts

11

What happens in pregnancy to the breast in the first trimester?

1st trimester: elongation and branching of the smaller ducts, combined with proliferation of the epithelial cells of the glands and the myoepithelial cells.

12

What happens to the breast in the second trimester?

In 2nd trimester, glandular tissue continues to develop with differentiation of secretory alveoli. Also plasma cells and lymohocytes infiltrate the nearby connective tissue

13

What happens i the third trimester to the breast?

Secretory alveoli continue to mature, with developmental of extensive rER

14

What other changes occur in the breast during pregnancy?

Reduction in amount of connective and adipose tissue

15

What stimulates proliferation of secretory tissue and causes fibro-fatty tiisue becomes sparse

Oestrogen and progesterone

16

What is the composition of milk?

88% water
1.5% protein
7% carbohydrate
3.5% lipid

17

What are the main proteins in breast milk?

Lactalbumin
Casein

18

What is the main carbohydrate in breast milk?

Lactose

19

What else is present in breast milk in small doses?

Ions
Vitamins
IgA antibodies

20

What is involved in apocrine secretion?

Lipids

21

What is involved in merocrine secretion?

Proteins

22

What happens following menopause?

Secretory cells of the TDLU's degenerate leaving only ducts
In connective tissue, there are fewer fibroblasts and reduced collagen and elastic fibres

23

What can happen in breast carcinoma?

Normal breast stroma can be invaded by malignant epithelial cells