Breast Cancer and Tissue Engineering (25,28) Flashcards Preview

CEDB30004 Stem Cells in Development and Regeneration > Breast Cancer and Tissue Engineering (25,28) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Breast Cancer and Tissue Engineering (25,28) Deck (22):
1

Which method would NOT be used to define mammary stem cells?
a. Limiting dilution assays
b. Transplantation to demonstrate the multilinage differentiation capacity of stem cells
c. In vitro linage tracing
d. Fractionation by flow cytometry using cell surface markers



c. In vitro linage tracing

2

How was self-renewal shown in Lin- CD24+ CD29hi cells?
a. Serial transplantation studies
b. Bipotent exclusion
c. In vivo linage tracing
d. B-gal assay

a. Serial transplantation studies

3

How do ovarian hormones influence stem cell activity?
a. Depriving the hormones increases MaSC activity
b. The MaSC pool increases during pregnancy
c. Aging leads to a decrease in MaSC function
d. Excess hormone levels decrease MaSC function

b. The MaSC pool increases during pregnancy

4

What is RANKL?
a. A ligand that leads to stem cell expansion
b. A luminal progenitor upregulated in breast cancer
c. A compound secreted from the alveolar myoepithlium
d. A steroid hormone that signals stem cell differentiation

a. A ligand that leads to stem cell expansion

5

The transcription factor GATA3:
a. Is dispensable in the process of luminal cell differentiation
b. Only regulates mammary gland development in the embryo
c. Influences development, cell fate and differentiation
d. Is a master regulator of the RANK pathway

c. Influences development, cell fate and differentiation

6

What is correct about BRCA-1 mutations?
a. Luminal progenitors exhibit factor-independent growth
b. Colony forming ability is damaged
c. The mutation directly impacts stem cell activity (no, progenitor)
d. Luminal progenitors only proliferate in the presence of growth factors

a. Luminal progenitors exhibit factor-independent growth

7

What best describes how APC can link to tumour formation in the gut?
a. Tumours arise when APC is deleted in transit amplifying cells
b. Tumours arise when APC is up-regulated in stem cells
c. Tumours arise when APC is deleted in stem cells
d. Tumours arise when APC is deleted from stem cells and transit amplifying cells

c. Tumours arise when APC is deleted in stem cells

8

What is NOT a feature of cancer stem cells?
a. They are subsets of tumour cells that can self-renew and generate tumour cells
b. They are the same as the ‘cell of origin’
c. They do not necessarily originate from transformation of normal stem cells
d. They can be demonstrated through serial transplantation experiments

b. They are the same as the ‘cell of origin’

9

• During pregnancy, the breast epithelium can expand 25 fold.

T

10

• Confetti is a multicolour cre reporter that allows one cell to fluoresce many colours.

F

11

• Only mouse MaSCs lack receptors for the ovarian hormones oestrogen and progesterone.

F

12

• Unlike notch signalling, Wnt signalling is essential for the self-renewal of MaSCs.

T

13

• CD61 cells are 20-fold enriched for CSCs.

T

14

What is not a hurdle in tissue engineering?
a. Technical considerations
b. Commercial considerations
c. Advertising regulations
d. Regulatory considerations


c. Advertising regulations

15

Which statement is FALSE?
a. The design criteria of engineered tissue is based on specific tissue properties
b. 3D human scale tissues do not require an early blood supply
c. In vivo bioreactors allow construct development concurrently with vascularisation
d. Traditional tissue engineering is based on making a polymer scaffold, introducing cells and growth factors and transplanting it to the patient

b. 3D human scale tissues do not require an early blood supply

16

What is NOT a challenge in tissue engineering?
a. Biomaterials must not be biodegradable
b. 3D vascularised tissues require a blood supply
c. Biological signals must be delivered efficiently
d. Infection and in vivo responses must be controlled

a. Biomaterials must not be biodegradable

17

What is correct about Macroporous hydrogel production?
a. Porosity and interconnectivity are low
b. Average pore size cannot be tuned by temperature
c. The process involves a freezing and warming cycle which causes water molecules to leave holes in the material
d. The resulting scaffold can be toxic to human recipients

c. The process involves a freezing and warming cycle which causes water molecules to leave holes in the material

18

What is NOT a feature of layer by layer assemblies?
a. bFGF can be delivered sandwiched with Heparin in a microsphere
b. Surface chemistry is important for cell adhesion and can be manipulated through crosslinking
c. PLGA can lead to inflammation but can be used as a base layer for engineered tissue scaffolds
d. When bFGF is in a microsphere, it is released rapidly and is not tunable

d. When bFGF is in a microsphere, it is released rapidly and is not tunable

19

In regards to dual biomolecule delivery:
a. α-MSH binds strongly to hydrophobic surfaces and can act as an anti-inflammatory when PLGA is broken down
b. Increasing the amount of crosslinking slows the release of α-MSH
c. bFGF is stabilised by specific binding between heparin and HA
d. Increasing the number of layers slows the release of bFGF

a. α-MSH binds strongly to hydrophobic surfaces and can act as an anti-inflammatory when PLGA is broken down

20

• The mechanical properties of cells and/or tissues can be characterised using micropipette aspiration, AFM and Instron Microtesters.

T

21

• Increasing hyaluronic acid content decreases the bulk stiffness of polymer scaffolds.

F

22

• PLGA is a hydrophobic polymer with poor surface chemistry and can induce inflammation.

T