Breast Histology, Mammogenesis and Lactation Flashcards Preview

Endo Exam 2 > Breast Histology, Mammogenesis and Lactation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Breast Histology, Mammogenesis and Lactation Deck (55):
1

mammary gland

branching duct system
glandular epithelium
surrounding myoepithelial cells

2

gland of mamma

compound tubulo-alveolar gland
gland elements
duct elements
subQ CT stroma
all line in bed of adipose tissue

3

skin of nipple and areola

stratified squamous epithelium, dry

no hair follicles, tall dermal papillae

4

melanocytes

darker pigmentation of nipple and areola
increase during pregnancy

5

nipple and areola

underlying dense irregular CT
abundant elastic fibers attach to nipples

sebaceous empty on surface and into ducts

numerous meissners and pacinian corpuscles
-2 point sensory input

6

ducts of nipple

tubular alveolar duct system
10-25 excretory ducts terminate in nipple
each duct drains individual lobe
ducts expand at nipple - lactiferous sinus

each ductule of system leads to lobule

7

lobule

functional unit of gland

8

duct epithelium

ductules originate at secretory alveoli

cuboidal to columnar epithelium

also layer of myoepithelial cells

9

distal alveolar duct cells

may become secretory
-during lactation

10

cells bound by

tight junctions
gap junctions - coordination of contraction
desmosomes

11

lactiferous sinus

become reservoir for breast milk

12

lactiferous alveoli

clusters surround alveolar ductule
-simple columnar epithelium
rough ER, golgi, secretion granules

13

myoepithelial cells

surround alveoli

14

stroma

dense irregular to loose irregular
-interlobular - dense
-intralobular - loose (so they can expand)

15

interlobular CT

dense separates lobes and lobules

16

intralobular CT

loose
surrounds and separates alveoli
allows expansion

17

adipose tissue

source of lipid for milk production
-becomes depleted during lactation

18

innervation

superficial - areola and nipple - sensory

myoepithelial not innervated
-activated by endocrine hormones
-oxytocin - milk ejection

19

myoepithelial cell innervation

NOPE!
hormone control
primary - oxytocin

released at childbirth

20

mammogenesis

6th week gestation - mammary ridges from ectoderm

development under influence of prenatal estrogen

21

pre-pubescent mammary gland

nipple
areola
primitive duct system

same in male and female

22

mammary gland at puberty

further grow and branch duct system
elaborates under influence of estrogen

alveoli develop under influence of progesterone

adipose increase
CT proliferation

luteal phase - further duct and alveoli development
-estrogen and progesterone

full mammary development requires other hormones

23

estrogen

elaborates duct system

24

progesterone

elaborates alveoli development

25

mammogenic

cell proliferation

26

lactogenic

milk production

27

galactokinetic

promote contraction of myoepithelial
-milk ejection

28

galactopoietic

maintain milk production after it has been established

29

lobuloalveolar growth

estrogen
progesterone
PRL
GH
cortisol

30

lactogenic hormones

PRL
hCS
cortisol
insulin
thyroid

withdrawal of E and P

31

galactokinetic homrones

oxytocin

little bit vasopresin

32

galactopoietic hormones

PRL - primary
cortisol

33

breast cancer

75% have estrogen receptors
-may also coexpress progesterone receptors

postmenopausal vs. premenopausal Tx differences

34

postmenopausal

aromatase inhibitor

35

premenopausal

tamoxifen - breast antagonist

36

estrogen and progesterone

increase as pregnancy progresses

stimulate mammogenesis

37

prolactin

secreted by anterior pituitary throughout pregnancy

mammogenic and lactogenic

38

hCS and hPL

similar to PRL and GH
produced by placenta

lactogenic

39

end of pregnancy

breasts fully developed but milk production suppressed except for small amount of colostrum
-inhibited by high E and P during pregnancy

40

oxytocin

during parturition - uterine contractions
-cervical distension positive feedback

promotes milk ejection

positive feedback - suckling, anticipation of nursing, audiovisual stimuli

41

four stages of lactation

milk synthesis
lactogenesis
galactopoiesis
milk ejection

42

milk synthesis

initiated by PRl and hPL - later pregnancy

43

lactogenesis

after birth by loss of placental steroids

44

galactopoiesis

maintained by PRL - increases with infant sucking

45

colostrum

lots of IgG to baby
also nutrients, fat, antibodies

initial fluid before milk comes in

46

PRL

maintained at higher levels by suckling

47

after parturition

drop in estrogen and progesterone

PRL has intermittent secretions - pulses
-response to suckling

48

oxytocin source

posterior pituitary

49

inhibition of oxytocin

negative maternal emotions

50

suckling reflex

activates afferent - breast - spinal cord - hypothalamus

1 first - inhibition of inhibition
-so it inhibits dopamine (which normally (-) PRL)
-so we have PRL synthesis

2 also stimulation of oxytocin release

3 also inhibitory of GnRH - decrease FSH and LH
-inhibits ovarian cycle
-promote amenorrhea during breast feeding

51

human milk

fats in aqueous solution
sugar - lactose
protein - lactalbumin and casein
K, Ca, Na, Cl, P

highest calories

52

cows milk

3x protein - high casein
higher electrolyte concentration

harder for newborn to digest - bc of casein high

53

colostrum

has high cell content
macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes

54

breast milk immunity

IgA
WBCs
growth factors

55

benefits of breast feeding

baby - reduced infection, increased grwoth, decreased obesity, positive effect on mental development

momma - rapid and sustained weight loss, lactational amenorrhea, psych benefits, cost effective