Flashcards in Breathing Difficulties II - include Epiglottitis VS Croup Deck (23):
What are the causes of acute stridor?
Epiglottitis - Life-threatening!
Inhaled foreign object
Quinsy - Tonsillar abscess
Anaphylaxis - due to narrowing of upper airway
What are the investigations done if suspected of foreign objects?
CXR - to look for unilateral hyperexpansion or radio-opaque objects
Rigid bronchoscopy to find and retrieve object
What is coryza?
Coryza is a medical term for runny nose
What is the coryza a feature of?
Coryza is a feature of bronchiolitis
What is the cause of grunting?
Grunting occurs when infants close their glottis to generate end expiratory pressure to keep the alveoli open, especially when there are a lot of secretions.
It is seen in bronchiolitis.
When is supplemental oxygen given?
When the oxygen saturation is below 95%
What is the respiratory rate for each age group of children?
Ages 0 - 1 : 30 - 40
Ages 1 - 2 : 25 - 35
Ages 2 - 5 : 25 - 30
Ages 5 - 12 : 20 - 25
Ages >12 : 15 - 20
In which condition is a CXR done even though there are no findings on auscultation?
CXR is done in infants < 3 years old if they present with fever, tachypnoea, or hypoxia.
Why will patients present with a silent chest?
A silent chest occurs if airways are severely constricted, in the case of severe asthma, such that air can barely flow through
The peak flow is charted according to the child's age, height or weight?
The peak flow is charted according to the child's height
What are the commonest pathogens of coryza?
Rhinovirus, coronavirus and RSV
Which medication is 1st line treatment of acute otitis media?
Otitis media with effusion is also known as?
Is there a cough in epiglottitis?
Is there drooling of saliva in epiglottitis?
What is the cause of acute epiglottitis?
Haemophilus influenza type B
How acutely is the onset of croup and epiglottitis? Over days or over hours?
Croup occurs over days whereas epiglottitis is more acute and presents over hours.
Is there preceding coryza before croup and before epiglottitis?
There is preceding coryza before croup, but none before epiglottitis
Is the child able to drink in croup? How about in epiglottitis?
Child is able to drink and swallow in croup, but not in epiglotittis
How high is the fever in croup? In epiglottitis?
<38.5 degree celsius in croup, but >38.5 in epiglottitis
Describe the sound of stridor in croup and in epiglottitis
In croup, the sound of stridor is harsh and rasping.
In epiglottitis, the sound of stridor is soft and whispering
What is the sound of the voice in croup and epiglottitis?
In croup, the voice is hoarse, but in epiglottitis, it is muffled. Child may be reluctant to speak.