Flashcards in Bronchiectasis Deck (10):
What is the definition of bronchiectasis?
a dilation of the bronchi and bronchioles, which is chronic in nature and results in inflammation and damage to the walls of these airways
What are the causes of bronchiectasis?
chronic respiratory infections, tuberculosis lesions, secondary to patients with cystic fibrosis, bronchial obstruction
What is the pathophysiology of bronchiectasis?
-chronic dilation resulting from destructive changes caused by inflammation infection and in some cases, congenital defects
-damage to the cilia along with dilation of the airway hinders mucociliary transport causing secretions to pool
What are the clinical signs and symptoms associated with bronchiectasis?
-productive cough with large amounts of thick, purulent secretions, which may be foul smelling
-vital sign changes, typically what to expect from infection and hypoxemia
-blood gas changes
-other manifestations resulting from chronic hypoxemia
How do blood gases change with bronchiectasis?
-respiratory alkalosis with hypoxemia (acute alveolar hyperventilation caused by hypoxemia)
-in severe cases: respiratory acidosis with hypoxemia (chronic alveolar hyperventilation caused by hypoxemia)
What other bronchiectasis manifestations result from chronic hypoxemia?
-pulmonary hypertension causing cor pulmonale
What characteristics of bronchiectasis show up on a chest xray or CAT scan?
-chest xray may show cystic spaces resulting from the cystic form of bronchiectasis
-high resolution CT scanning
-characteristics of pulmonary function studies
What are the characteristics of pulmonary function studies that show up on a chest xray?
decrease airflows and decrease in vital capacity
What is the treatment for bronchiectasis?
-pulmonary rehab, home care