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Flashcards in Bronchiectasis Deck (12)
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1

What is bronchiectasis?

Chronic dilatation + thickening of one or more bronchi

2

What is the effect of bronchiectasis?

Poor mucus clearance
Chronic bacterial infection

3

What can cause bronchiectasis?

Pneumonia
TB
Influenza
Immunodeficiency
Aspiration
Steroid use
Cystic fibrosis
RA
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

4

What is ABPA?

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

Type 1 and 3 hypersensitivity reaction to aspergillus

5

What are the symptoms of bronchiectasis?

Purulent sputum
Cough
Haemoptysis
Breathlessness
Recurrent infections
Wheeze
Course crackles

6

What are the investigations for suspected bronchiectasis?

Sputum sample
Peak flow
Bloods
ABG
CXR
Bronchoscopy
HRCT

7

What is the gold standard investigation?

HRCT

8

What can be seen on a HRCT?

Signet ring sign - increased bronchoarterial ratio

Bunch of grapes - dilated bronchi

Tram tracks - thickened non-tapering walls

9

What are the different classifications of bronchiectasis?

Cylindrical
- bronchi have a uniform calibre, do not taper and have parallel walls

Varicose
- beaded appearances where dilated bronchi have interspersed sites of relative narrowing

Saccular/cystic
- severe form with cyst-like bronchi that extend to the pleural surface
- seen in cystic fibrosis

10

How is bronchiectasis managed?

Treat underlying cause

MDT
Smoking cessation
Bronchodilators
Chest physio

11

How are infective exacerbations of bronchiectasis managed?

Antibiotics
Steroids

12

What are complications of bronchiectasis?

Cor pulmonale
Sepsis
Abscesses
Respiratory failure