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Flashcards in BRS Immunology Deck (228)
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1

Function of immune system?

Removal of foreign material/microorganisms

2

Is innate immunity specific or non specific?

Nonspecific

3

Innate immunity is developed when?

By birth

4

The protective factors in innate immunity are independent of what?

Antigenic stimulus.

5

Is innate immunity fast or slow?

Fast

6

Is innate immunity first or second?

First

7

Is adaptive immunity specific or nonspecific?

Specific

8

How is adaptive immunity actively acquired? (2

Infection or vaccination

9

How is adaptive immunity passively acquired? 2

Placental transfer
Injection of specific antibody

10

4 main types of physical and chemical barriers to microbial invasion in innate immunity?

1. Skin and mucus membranes block and secrete
2. Defensins in phagocytic vacuoles are secreted and damage bacteria
3. Cathelicidins are released in granules to cause pores to form in bacteria
4. Lysozyme is released in lacrimal and saliva secretions

11

What cells are involved in early detection of pathogens? (3)

1. Macrophages
2. Neutrophils
3. Dendritic cells

12

Macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells all possess what type of special receptor?

Pattern Recognition receptors

13

Pattern recognition receptors recognize what?
Which are found where?

Pathogen-Associated Molecular patterns (PAMP's)

Found on many microorganisms

14

One of the most important types of PRR's is what?

Toll-like receptors

15

Toll like receptors recognize what?

PAMP's on selective microorganisms

16

Upon binding a toll-like receptor to a PAMP, what does the cell do?

Releases Interleukin

17

Function of interleukin? 3

1. Incite inflammation
2. Incite phagocytosis
3. Removal of organism

18

Natural killer cells detect host cells with what main feature?

Depressed levels of major histocompatability class I molecules which is caused by viruses

19

NK cells binding to an infected cell's MHC class I is through what receptor?

Killer-activated receptor

20

How can a cell with adequate MHC class I levels prevent destruction by NK cells?

NK cells have a Killer Inhibition Receptor which determines if a cell has adequate MHC I levels

21

What initiates inflammation?

Microbial induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines

22

Pro-inflammatory cytokines include? (2)

TNF-Alpha
IL-1

23

Pro-inflammatory cytokines induce what? 2

Adhesion molecules on leukocytes (Integrins)
Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells (selectins)

24

How do neutrophils slow their flow in order to undergo diapedesis into injury site?

By neutrophils' integrins binding to endothelial selectins and intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAM)

25

Phagocytic cells are recruited by what chemokines? 3

IL-8
Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)
Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)

26

First cells to arrive at seen of infection?

Neutrophils

27

What follows neutrophils to infection site? (3)

1. Macrophages
2. Monocytes
3. Lymphocytes

28

Phagocytized membrane-enclosed organisms are destroyed in phagocytic vacuoles by what? 4

1. Lysosomal enzymes
2. hydrogen peroxide
3. Nitric oxide
4. O2-anion

29

Repair of the damage caused by excessive inflammation is done by what two ways?

1. Down-regulate cytokines
2. Produce extracellular matrix

30

How are cytokines down-regulated in post-infection?

IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-Beta down regulate the cyotkines