Flashcards in BRS Immunology Deck (228)
Function of immune system?
Removal of foreign material/microorganisms
Is innate immunity specific or non specific?
Innate immunity is developed when?
The protective factors in innate immunity are independent of what?
Is innate immunity fast or slow?
Is innate immunity first or second?
Is adaptive immunity specific or nonspecific?
How is adaptive immunity actively acquired? (2
Infection or vaccination
How is adaptive immunity passively acquired? 2
Injection of specific antibody
4 main types of physical and chemical barriers to microbial invasion in innate immunity?
1. Skin and mucus membranes block and secrete
2. Defensins in phagocytic vacuoles are secreted and damage bacteria
3. Cathelicidins are released in granules to cause pores to form in bacteria
4. Lysozyme is released in lacrimal and saliva secretions
What cells are involved in early detection of pathogens? (3)
3. Dendritic cells
Macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells all possess what type of special receptor?
Pattern Recognition receptors
Pattern recognition receptors recognize what?
Which are found where?
Pathogen-Associated Molecular patterns (PAMP's)
Found on many microorganisms
One of the most important types of PRR's is what?
Toll like receptors recognize what?
PAMP's on selective microorganisms
Upon binding a toll-like receptor to a PAMP, what does the cell do?
Function of interleukin? 3
1. Incite inflammation
2. Incite phagocytosis
3. Removal of organism
Natural killer cells detect host cells with what main feature?
Depressed levels of major histocompatability class I molecules which is caused by viruses
NK cells binding to an infected cell's MHC class I is through what receptor?
How can a cell with adequate MHC class I levels prevent destruction by NK cells?
NK cells have a Killer Inhibition Receptor which determines if a cell has adequate MHC I levels
What initiates inflammation?
Microbial induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines
Pro-inflammatory cytokines include? (2)
Pro-inflammatory cytokines induce what? 2
Adhesion molecules on leukocytes (Integrins)
Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells (selectins)
How do neutrophils slow their flow in order to undergo diapedesis into injury site?
By neutrophils' integrins binding to endothelial selectins and intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAM)
Phagocytic cells are recruited by what chemokines? 3
Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)
First cells to arrive at seen of infection?
What follows neutrophils to infection site? (3)
Phagocytized membrane-enclosed organisms are destroyed in phagocytic vacuoles by what? 4
1. Lysosomal enzymes
2. hydrogen peroxide
3. Nitric oxide
Repair of the damage caused by excessive inflammation is done by what two ways?
1. Down-regulate cytokines
2. Produce extracellular matrix