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Flashcards in Byzantine Empire Deck (127):
1

What should you think of when u think about the Byzantine empire ?

Turkey

2

What became the capital of the Byzantine empire ?

It was formally known as _______.
Then it was renamed ________.

Also known as _________.

Constantinople

Byzantine
Constantinople

New Rome

3

Why was Constantinople an important place (why was it the capitol) ?

It remained secure as the western Roman Empire was destroyed

4

Where is Constantinople located ?

On the Bosporus straight

5

What did the Bosporus straight do?

Linked Mediterranean and black seas

6

What was good about Constantinople / Bosporus straight ?

Had excellent harbor because 3 sides were water

7

What was Constantinople guarded by ?

Large land and sea walls

8

What was Constantinople known for ?

It was the center of key trading routes that linked Europe and Asia.

It was European busiest market place for centuries

9

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it was still in existence for ___ years.

______, ________, and ________ influences blended with the traditions of _______________.

1000

Greek
Roman
Christian

Mediterranean World

10

The byzantine empire reached its peak during whose rule ?

What was he determined to do ?

Justinian

Revive Ancient Rome

11

Who was a very successful general under Justinian's rule ?

General Belisaris

12

What did General Belisarius reconquer in 527 to 565 ?

North Africa
Italy
Southern Spain

13

Who was the last of the romans ?

General Belisarius

14

Why were the victories temporary ?

Justinian's successors would lose the land again

15

What was emperor Justinian known for ?

Rebuilding Constantinople

16

What important building was rebuilt under Justinian's rule ?

Hagia Sophia

17

What did Hagia Sophia mean ?

Holy Wisdom

18

Hagia Sophia

What did they improve ?
What did the interior look like ?

Improved Roman architecture (it was a huge arching dome)

Colored marble and embroidered silk curtains

19

What was Justinian's most important contribution ?

He reformed the law

20

What does Corpus Julie's civillis mean ?


Body of law

21

What did the body of law become known as ?

Justinian's code

22

Laws were organized and revised

What were the final 4 parts of Justinian's Code.

Code
Digest
Institutes
Novalle

23

How did Justinian's Code impact Western Europe ?

it guided legal thinkers in later centuries who put together international law in use today

24

What did Justinian use the laws for ?

to unify the empire under his control

25

what is an autocratic ruler ?

Sole ruler with complete authority

26

How are autocratic rulers different from roman rulers ?

They had control of the church

27

What did Justinian see himself as ?

Christ's co-ruler on earth

28

Justinian was aided by his wife, ______?

Theodora

29

What did Justinian do with the power ?

he combined political and spiritual power

30

Sole ruler with complete authority

Autocratic Ruler

31

What are 3 things that peasants did that formed the backbone of the empire ?

worked the land
paid taxes
soldiers for military

32

Byzantine currency

bezant

33

What was the Byzantine's secret weapon called ?

Greek Fire

34

what was greek fire

liquid that contained petroleum, ignited on impact, and couldn't be out out with water

35

Bezant

Byzantine gold coin stamped with emperor's image circulated from England to China.

36

What created problems between east and west ?

They had different opinions on religion

37

who controlled the church affairs ?

byzantine emperor

38

Byzantine Christians rejected the __________.

the pope's claim to authority over all christians

39

who was the highest church official ?

patriarch

40

what kept their right to marry ?

the clergy

41

what was their language ?

Greek

42

what caused disputes and disagreement between the east and west and contributed to the split of the church ?

the use of icons

43

what did the pope do about the icon disagreement ?

he condemned the use of icons

44

Great schism

split between eastern and western christianity

45

what was the western branch ?

Roman Catholic church

46

what was the eastern branch ?

Byzantine church

greek orthodox church

47

5 reasons the empire declined ?

1. struggles over succession
2. constant wars
3. local rulers gained control over large areas of land
4. enemies attacked empire
5. Seljuk Turks (Asia Minor) and Normans & Lombards (Europe)

48

who was the byzantine emperor ?

Alexis I

49

what did Alexis I do ?

called for western help

50

Alexis I called for western help from who ?

Pope Urban II

51

Why did Alexis I call for help from the west ?

to fight the Seljuk Turks

52

What was the result of Alexis I asking for help from the west ?

the first crusade

53

during later crusades _______ created violence between byzantine and ______.

trade rivalry, Italy
Venice

54

What happened in the 4th crusade ?

knights attacked constantinople

55

what happened in the 4th crusade when the knights attacked Constantinople ?

the burned and plundered the city
sent treasures back to western europe

56

When does Constantinople fall/ captured ?
To/ by whom?

1453 ottoman turks

57

After Constantinople was captured what was it renamed ?

Instanbul

58

what did the ottomans turn the Hagia Sophia into ?

an Islamic mosque

59

what is the largest nation today ?

Russia

60

where did russia begin ?

Present day ukraine

61

where does russia lie ?

on the Eurasian plain (Europe to China borders)

62

What is seen as the divider between Europe and Asia?

Ural Mountains

63

What was good and bad about the northern forests ?

they supplied lumber and fuel

had poor soil and the cold,snowy climate hindered farming.

64

Since the northern forest weren't good where did farmers go ? why ?

farther south

there was fertile land

65

where was a good place for nomadic people ?

what was it ?

southern steppe

open, treeless grassland that offered pasture for herds and horses

66

what did the network of rivers provide ?

provided transportation for both people and goods

67

2 rivers that became productive trade routes

Dnieper River
Volga River

68

major rivers linked _______ in the _____ to the _______ in the _____.

Russians North

Byzantines South

69

How were the Slavs like the Germanic people ?

they had no political organization more complex than the clan.

70

what are some characteristics of the Slavs ?

lived in small villages, farmed, traded along the rivers connecting the Baltic and the black sea

71

in the 700s and 800s the vikings came out of ________ and worked their way south along _____, trading with _____.

Scandinavia
rivers
Slavs

72

Later, what did the Russians call the vikings ?

Vargangians

73

Constantinople later sent ________ to convert the Slavs.

christian missionaies

74

What did Cyril and Methodius do to help convert the slavs ?

adapted the Greek alphabet so they could translate the bible into Slavic languages

75

The ____ alphabet became the written script used in _______ and _______.

Cyrillic

Russian, Ukraine

76

In 957, who converted to Byzantine Christianity ?

Olga

77

Who is Olga ?

remaining princess of kiev

78

It was not until the reign of _____ that Byzantine Christianity spread widely.

Vladimir

79

Who is Vladimir ?

grandson of Olga

80

What architectural feature did churches begin to have ?

Onion domes

81

What did Byzantine Christianity set the patterns for ?

The close ties between church and state

82

What was a pillar of state power ?

Russian Orthodox Church

83

Who ruled under the golden age in Kiev ?

Yaroslav

84

From what years did yaroslav rule ?

1019 - 1054

85

3 things that yaroslav did in the golden age ?

Issued a law code

Translated Greek words into his language

Arranged marriages between his children and the royal families in Western Europe

86

When did Kiev decline ?

1100's

87

What cause Kiev to decline ?

1. Rival families battling for the throne

2. As the Russian princes fought mongol invaders attacked

3. Russian trading cities were hurt because byzantine prosperity faded

88

What was the mongol conquest ?

Unification of the nomadic mongols of Central Asia by Genghis khan

89

When did the mongol conquest occur ?

1200's

90

Who was Genghis khan ?

World emperor

91

Who is the grandson of Genghis Khan ?

Batu

92

What did Batu do ?

When did he do it ?

He led mongol armies into Russia

1236-1241

93

What were mongols known as ?
Why ?

Golden Horde

The color of their tents

94

What did the mongols do when they entered Russia ?

Burned Kiev and other Russian towns

95

What are 2 ways that the mongols affected Russia ?

1. Peasants felt the burden of heavy taxes.

2. Some fled to remote regions while others sought protection by becoming surfs of Russian nobles.

96

What did mongols do about the Russian Orthodox Church ?

They tolerated it even tho they were Muslim

97

What served as a model for later Russian rulers ?

The absolute power of the mongols

98

____________ began to develop a strong desire to __________ without inference from __________________.

Russian princes

Centralize their own power

Nobles clergy or merchants

99

What did mongol rule do that affected Russia later on ?

They cut of the Russians contacts with Western Europe at the time when Europeans were making rapid advancement.

100

In what period did princess of Moscow steadily increase their power?

Mongol period

101

What was the Moscow princess' success due to ?

The city's location which is near important river trade routes

102

The head of the Russian Orthodox Church made _______ his capital.

At the same time that city became Russia's ________ ?

Moscow

Russia's spiritual center

103

As mongol power declined, the princess of Moscow took on a new rule as a __________________________.

Patriotic defenders of Russia against foreign rule

104

1380


Who ?
Did what ?
Where ?

The princess of Moscow

Rallied up other Russians and defeated the Golden Horde

at the battle of Kulikovo

105

Who was the driving force behind Moscow's rising power ?

Ivan the great
Ivan III

106

What was the best contribution Ivan the great had ?

Expanding

107

Between 1462 - 1505 Ivan the great _____________ and ____________.

Bought much of northern Russia

Recovered Russian territories that had fallen to the neighboring Slavs

108

Ivan the great tried to limit the power of __________.

Landowning nobles

109

Who did Ivan the great marry ?


What did he do after he married ?

The niece of the last Byzantine emperor

Adapted Byzantine court rituals

110

What did Ivan The great use as his symbol ?


Double headed eagle

111

Ivan the great took the title of _______ which means ______.

Czar

Caesar

112

Who built the framework for absolute power ?

Ivan the great

113

Ivan the great was also Ivan the _____ (#) ?

3
III

114

Who further centralized royal power after Ivan the great ?

Ivan the Terrible

115

Ivan the terrible was also Ivan the _____ (#) ?

IV

4

116

How was Ivan the terrible related to Ivan the great?

He was his grandson

117

What did Ivan the terrible do to get people to serve in the military ?

Granted land to nobles in return they would serve

118

Ivan the Terrible introduced new laws that ________.

Tied Russian serfs to the land

119

In what year did Ivan the Terrible become increasingly unstable?

1560

120

During one of Ivan the terrible's fits of rage he __________.

Killed his own son

121

He organized the ________. (Group of people)

Oprichniki

122

What was the oprichniki ?

Agents of terror who enforced the czars will

123

How did the oprichniki look ?

Black robes

Rode on black horses

124

What did the oprichniki do ?

Slaughtered people and sacked towns suspected of disloyalty

125

When did Ivan the Terrible die ?

1584

126

What are 3 ruins that plunged Russia into a period of disorder ?

1. Disputes over succession

2. Peasant uprisings

3. Foreign invasions

127

In what century was Russia an emerging power ?

1600's