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Flashcards in C1 Deck (38):
1

What are the main gases found in the air?

Nitrogen, Oxygen , Carbon dioxide and Argon.

2

What is air?

A mixture of gaseous elements and compounds with large spaces between molecules

3

What are the proportions of the main gases?

nitrogen 78%,oxygen 21%, argon 1%, carbon dioxide 0.04%

4

Name two other ways in which gases or particulates might be released into the atmosphere ?

1.Natural process ie volcanic activity
2.Human activity

5

How was Earth's early atmosphere formed?

Volcanic activity

6

What did the Earth's early atmospheres consist of?

Carbon dioxide and water vapour

7

How did the Earth's oceans form?

When the Earthy cooled, water vapour condensed to form oceans

8

How did the evolution of photosynthesising organisms change the atmosphere?

They added oxygen and removed carbon dioxide

9

Name two ways in which carbon dioxide was removed from the atmosphere APART from photosynthesis?

Dissolved in oceans, and formed sedimentary rock and the formation of fossil fuels

10

Which five pollutants have humans added to the atmosphere?

1. Carbon monoxide
2.Nitrogen oxides
3.Sulphur dioxide
4.Carbon dioxide
5. Carbon particulates

11

How is carbon monoxide directly harmful to human health?

It reduces the amount of oxygen blood can carry

12

How might sulphur dioxide harm the environment and indirectly cause harm to humans?

It reacts with water to form acid rain, damaging plants and crops

13

What is coal mainly made from?

Carbon

14

What are petrol, diesel fuel, and fuel oil mainly made from?

Hydrocarbons (hydrogen and carbon)

15

If a fuel is burnt in plenty of oxygen , which two products are made.

Carbon dioxide and water

16

What happens when you burn butane in oxygen?

Carbon dioxide and water is formed

17

What is an oxidation reaction?

One in which oxygen is gained

18

What is a reduction reaction?

One in which oxygen in lost

19

Why do fuel burn more rapidly in pure oxygen compared to air?

There are more oxygen molecules available to react with

20

Oxy-fuel welding torches need high levels of oxygen to work; from where can this oxygen be obtained?

The atmosphere

21

What is meant by the term conservation of mass?

The numbers of atoms at the start of a reaction is the same as the number of atoms in the products

22

If a fuel that contains sulphur is burnt, what gas is released ?

Sulphur dioxide

23

How are carbon dioxide and sulphur released into the atmosphere by human activity ?

Burning fossil fuels in power stations

24

How might carbon monoxide and and particulate carbon be released into the atmosphere by human activity?

Incomplete combustion in burning fossil fuels in power stations

25

How might nitrogen oxides be released into the atmosphere by human activity?

From the reactions between atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen at high temperatures inside engines

26

What can nitrogen monoxide be oxidised into?

Nitrogen dioxide

27

How can carbon particulates affect?

They settle and make them dirty

28

How do sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide get removed from the atmosphere in a way that harms the environment?

They react with water and oxygen to produce acid rain

29

How do plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?

They photosynthesise

30

How is carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere by rain and sea water?

It dissolves in them

31

Explain three ways in which atmospheric pollution caused by fossil fuels can be reduced?

1. Using less electricity
2.Removing sulphur from fuels
3.Removing sulphur dioxide and particulates from flue gases

32

Explain two ways in which acidic gas sulphur dioxide can be removed from flue gases?

1. Wet scrubbing using alkaline slurry
2. Dissolving in sea waters

33

What is the only way of producing less carbon dioxide?

Burn less fossil fuels

34

How does a catalytic converter help to reduce pollution?

It reduces nitrogen monoxide to nitrogen by loss of oxygen and oxidises carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide by gain of oxygen

35

How are legal limits of exhaust emission checked in cars?

MOT tests

36

how can amounts of sulphur dioxide being produced by burning fuels be reduced?

Use low-sulphur fuels

37

What are the benefits and problems of using electric cars?

Benefits: Do not produce waste gases when used
Problems: 1.Short range before needing to be recharged
2.recharging takes a long time
3. Often comes from power stations that burn fossil fuels

38

What are the benefits and problems of using bio fuel to run cars?

Benefits: Renewable, plants are carbon neutral
Problems: Still releases carbon dioxide when burnt, more land needed to grow sufficient amount of plants to use for fuel