Flashcards in C1 Deck (38):
What are the main gases found in the air?
Nitrogen, Oxygen , Carbon dioxide and Argon.
What is air?
A mixture of gaseous elements and compounds with large spaces between molecules
What are the proportions of the main gases?
nitrogen 78%,oxygen 21%, argon 1%, carbon dioxide 0.04%
Name two other ways in which gases or particulates might be released into the atmosphere ?
1.Natural process ie volcanic activity
How was Earth's early atmosphere formed?
What did the Earth's early atmospheres consist of?
Carbon dioxide and water vapour
How did the Earth's oceans form?
When the Earthy cooled, water vapour condensed to form oceans
How did the evolution of photosynthesising organisms change the atmosphere?
They added oxygen and removed carbon dioxide
Name two ways in which carbon dioxide was removed from the atmosphere APART from photosynthesis?
Dissolved in oceans, and formed sedimentary rock and the formation of fossil fuels
Which five pollutants have humans added to the atmosphere?
1. Carbon monoxide
5. Carbon particulates
How is carbon monoxide directly harmful to human health?
It reduces the amount of oxygen blood can carry
How might sulphur dioxide harm the environment and indirectly cause harm to humans?
It reacts with water to form acid rain, damaging plants and crops
What is coal mainly made from?
What are petrol, diesel fuel, and fuel oil mainly made from?
Hydrocarbons (hydrogen and carbon)
If a fuel is burnt in plenty of oxygen , which two products are made.
Carbon dioxide and water
What happens when you burn butane in oxygen?
Carbon dioxide and water is formed
What is an oxidation reaction?
One in which oxygen is gained
What is a reduction reaction?
One in which oxygen in lost
Why do fuel burn more rapidly in pure oxygen compared to air?
There are more oxygen molecules available to react with
Oxy-fuel welding torches need high levels of oxygen to work; from where can this oxygen be obtained?
What is meant by the term conservation of mass?
The numbers of atoms at the start of a reaction is the same as the number of atoms in the products
If a fuel that contains sulphur is burnt, what gas is released ?
How are carbon dioxide and sulphur released into the atmosphere by human activity ?
Burning fossil fuels in power stations
How might carbon monoxide and and particulate carbon be released into the atmosphere by human activity?
Incomplete combustion in burning fossil fuels in power stations
How might nitrogen oxides be released into the atmosphere by human activity?
From the reactions between atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen at high temperatures inside engines
What can nitrogen monoxide be oxidised into?
How can carbon particulates affect?
They settle and make them dirty
How do sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide get removed from the atmosphere in a way that harms the environment?
They react with water and oxygen to produce acid rain
How do plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?
How is carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere by rain and sea water?
It dissolves in them
Explain three ways in which atmospheric pollution caused by fossil fuels can be reduced?
1. Using less electricity
2.Removing sulphur from fuels
3.Removing sulphur dioxide and particulates from flue gases
Explain two ways in which acidic gas sulphur dioxide can be removed from flue gases?
1. Wet scrubbing using alkaline slurry
2. Dissolving in sea waters
What is the only way of producing less carbon dioxide?
Burn less fossil fuels
How does a catalytic converter help to reduce pollution?
It reduces nitrogen monoxide to nitrogen by loss of oxygen and oxidises carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide by gain of oxygen
How are legal limits of exhaust emission checked in cars?
how can amounts of sulphur dioxide being produced by burning fuels be reduced?
Use low-sulphur fuels
What are the benefits and problems of using electric cars?
Benefits: Do not produce waste gases when used
Problems: 1.Short range before needing to be recharged
2.recharging takes a long time
3. Often comes from power stations that burn fossil fuels