C1: Atomic Structure And The Periodic Table Flashcards Preview

GCSE Chemistry > C1: Atomic Structure And The Periodic Table > Flashcards

Flashcards in C1: Atomic Structure And The Periodic Table Deck (36):
1

What is an atom?

An atom is the smallest part of an element that can exist

2

What are all substances made out of?

Atoms

3

What are atoms of elements represented by?

All atoms are represented by a chemical symbol eg O for oxygen and Na for sodium

4

About how many different element are there and where are they shown?

About 100 and in the periodic table

5

How are compounds formed?

Formed from elements by chemical reactions

6

What do chemical reactions always involve?

The formation of one of more new substances and often a detectable energy change

7

What do compounds contain?

Two or more chemically combined elements in fixed proportions

8

How are compounds represented?

By using a formulae that uses the symbols of the atoms from which it was formed

9

How can compounds be separated?

By chemical reactions

10

How can chemical reactions be represented?

By word equations or symbol/formulae equations

11

What does a mixture consist of?

Two or more elements that are not chemically combined together

12

How are mixtures separated?

Through physical processes such as filtration, crystallization, fractional distillation, simple distillation and chromatography

13

Before the discovery of the electron, what were atoms thought to be?

Tiny spheres that can't be divided

14

What did the discovery of the electron lead to?

The plum pudding model of the atom

15

What did the plum pudding suggest?

It suggests that the atom is a ball of postive charge with negative electrons

16

What did the results from the alpha particle model lead to?

It led to the plum pudding model being replaced with the nuclear model which includes the atom with a charged nucleus in the middle of it and the mass of the atom was concentrated there

17

What's different about the nuclear model?

It includes the atom with a charged nucleus in the middle of it and the mass of the atom was concentrated there

18

What did Niel Bohr do?

He adapted the nuclear model by suggesting that the electrons orbit around the nucleus at specific distances

19

Was Bohr's suggestion accepted?

Yes because experimental observations agreed with his theoretical calculations

20

What did later experiments lead to?

It led to the idea that the positive charge of the nucleus could be subdivided into smaller particles which each had an equal amount of positive charge,
these were called protons

21

What did James Chadwick do?

His experimental work led to the discovery of neutrons 20 years after the idea of the nuclear model was established

22

What's the relative electrical charge of a Proton?

+1

23

What's the relative electrical charge of a Neutron?

0

24

What's the relative electrical charge of an Electron?

-1

25

What's the overall electric charge of an atom?

There is none

26

How small are atoms?

They are very small
They have a radius of 0.1nm

27

How small is the nucleus?

The radius is less than 1/10000 of an atom's radius

28

What are the relative masses of a Proton, neutron, and electron?

Proton: 1
Neutron:1
Electron: very small

29

What do elements in the same group in the periodic table have in common?

They have the same number of electrons in their outer shell

30

How are elements in the periodic table arranged?

They're arranged by atomic (proton) number

31

How did scientists classify elements before the discovery of protons, neutrons, and electrons?

By atomic weights

32

What were the early periodic tables like?

Incomplete and some elements were placed in inappropriate groups

33

What did Mendeleev do?

He left gaps for elements he thought hadn't been discovered and in some places changed the order

34

What did knowledge of isotopes do?

They made it possible to understand why the order based on atomic weights wasn't always correct

35

Elements that react to form positive ions are

Metals

36

Elements that do not form positive ions are

Non-metals