C11 - The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C11 - The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic Deck (32):
1

James Monroe

Future President, but in 1803 he was sent to France by Thomas Jefferson to negotiate the Louisiana Purchase.

1

Toussaint L'Ouverture

Self-educated ex-slave who led other ex-slaves in resistance against the French efforts to get control of their island, Santa Domingo (in the Caribbean).

2

Judiciary Act of 1789

The law that Marbury based his case on in Marbury v. Madison. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 to be unconstitutional, firmly implanting the idea of "judicial review"

3

Chesapeake incident

1807. Most famous example of "impressment" by the British. A British ship "the Leopard" cornered the American ship "the Chesapeake" which was unarmed, and kidnapped 4 sailors.

4

Embargo Act

Law passed by Congress after being pushed by Jefferson. Used the idea of economic coercion to try to keep America out of fighting between British and France. This law made it illegal for American merchants to trade with Britain and France.

It was hated by Americans because it hurt the economy. No trade meant no $ for American merchants.

5

Tecumseh

Great Shawnee Indian leader. Tenskwatawa (the Prophet) was his brother.

The 2 brothers were great Indian leaders who tried to form an Indian confederacy and use cooperation among all Indian tribes to fight European pioneers' ability to move west. They did not believe in the concept of owning land...they thought the land belonged to everyone, so they encouraged all Indians to not give up land unless all tribes agreed together.

Tecumseh's headquarters were in Indiana at the Tippecanoe River. William Henry Harrison was governor of the Indiana Territory and led a group of men to advance on Tecumseh's headquarters. the Prophet led a group of Indians who attacked Harrison's group.

Harrison beat the Shawnees and made Harrison a national hero.

Tecumseh was weakened. Ended up forming an alliance with the British in the War of 1812. He died fighting on the British side at the Battle of Thames. The dream of an Indian confederacy died then too.

6

Non-intercourse act

Passed in March 1809 just before Jefferson left office. This replaced the hated embargo act. Opened trade to all parts of the world except Britain and France.

7

Thomas Jefferson

3rd President of US. Sworn in in March, 1801.

8

Aaron Burr

Jefferson's VP in his 1st term. Not asked back for Jefferson's 2nd term.

Burr became a Federalist extremist and tried to plot the secession of New England and NY from the US.

Alexander Hamilton found out about the plan and exposed it. Burr was furious and challenged Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton was killed by Burr during the duel.

Then he schemed with General James Wilkinson to try to split the Western US from the rest.

Burr was arrested and tried for Treason.

9

Macon's Bill No. 2

Bargaining measure put in place by Congress that repealed Jefferson's hated embargo. Opened trade between America and the whole world with 1 exception. Told France and Britain that whichever side ended their trade restrictions with the US first would be the winner, and US would impose a trade embargo with the other country. Since Britain and France were enemies, Congress thought this was the best way to gain at least 1 ally (France or Britain).

President James Madison disagreed...thought US should stay neutral to hopefully avoid being pulled into another European war. Madison did not thinkg the US should get involved in another war.

Macon's Bill did not work.

10

Orders in Council

1806: Laws passed in Britain declaring that no ships could go into French harbors without first being cleared by Britain. This included American ships and hurt American's ability to trade goods with France.

To retaliate, France started seizing ships going to British ports, including American ships.

Now it was hard to trade with both nations.

11

war hawks

Young Jeffersonian Democrat Republicans who did not agree with others in the party about staying out of war.

The rival party, the Federalists, called them warhawks because they wanted to start a war with Britain to protest Britain's Orders of Council and the kidnapping of US sailors on the seas that Britain dominated at the time.

The cried "On to Canada"...wanted to wipe out Britain's Canadian base. They were upset that Britain continued to arm the Indians, who then attacked US settlers/pioneers.

12

war hawks

Young Jeffersonian Democrat Republicans who did not agree with others in the party about staying out of war.

The rival party, the Federalists, called them warhawks because they wanted to start a war with Britain to protest Britain's Orders of Council and the kidnapping of US sailors (impressment).

The cried "On to Canada"...wanted to wipe out Britain's Canadian base. They were upset that Britain continued to arm the Indians, who then attacked US settlers/pioneers.

13

economic coercion

Jefferson's idea, also called peaceful coercion, to cut off all exports to warring Britain and France who had relied on American food and raw materials. This was an alternative to getting America involved in this war.

14

impeachment

The act of having Congress vote to remove a Supreme Court justice or a President out of office.

15

Louisiana Purchase Treaty

April 30, 1803. America paid $15 million for Louisiana, including New Orleans (land America really wanted as it was important for shipping goods down the Mississippi River to the ocean. They got a lot more wilderness to the West than just New Orleans.

16

"Revolution of 1800"

Name given to the election of Jefferson in 1800. a peaceful handing over of power from John Adams and the Federalists to Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans.

18

Meriwether Lewis

Thomas Jefferson's personal secretary - was sent in 1804 with Army officer William Clark, to explore the land gained in the Louisiana Purchase.

Lewis and Clark expedition: Took 2.5 years. They were aided by a Shoshoni Indian, Sacajawea.

19

Marbury v. Madison

1803: Case before the Supreme Court where Marbury (one of the "midnight judges" who lost his job when the Judiciary Act of 1801 was overturned) sued Jefferson's Secretary of State, James Madison. He was suing to get his job back.

John Marshall, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court at the time, did not agree...denied Marbury a win in the case, but made a very important (smart, cunning) move. In his opinion, he asserted that a law passed in 1789 was unconstitutional.

In doing this, he cemented the theory of "judicial review" - the idea that the Supreme Court alone would decide the constitutionality of any law passed by Congress (the Supreme Court would be the body to determine the meaning of the Constitution during any dispute).

Before then, there had been disagreement (especially among Jeffersonians) about who should interpret constitutionality of any law...some said it should be the states that decide.

This made the Supreme Court very powerful.

19

John Marshall

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, appointed by Adams. Shaped American legal tradition more than any other single figure. Very smart, commanding personality.

idea of "judicial review" during his term - greatly increased the power of Supreme Court.

20

James Madison

Became president in March, 1809. Supported by Thomas Jefferson who decided to retire after 2 terms.

Intellectual, quiet, weak voice.

Did not favor Macon's Bill No. 2 and other foreign policy moves that Congress insisted on related to shipping and choosing sides between Britain and France (led by Napolean), but he did not have support in Congress to refuse.

22

impressment

British practice of forcibly seizing American sailors and forcing them to sail British ships.

22

Henry Clay

A war hawk who favored starting the War of 1812 with Britain.

23

Zebulon Pike

Man who explored the Louisiana territory from 1805-1807. Pikes Peak in CO is named after him.

24

Battle of Austerlitz

Battle in Austria where Frances Napolean crushed the Austrian and Russian armies, making France the superpower of the Land in Europe.

25

Sally Hemmings

Black slave at Monticello. Rumor was that Thomas Jefferson had fathered her 5 children. He denied this. Recent DNA evidence proves that he was the father.

26

William Clark

Young Army General picked by Jefferson to go with Meriwether Lewis to explore Louisiana.

27

William Marbury

Marbury (one of the "midnight judges" who lost his job when the Judiciary Act of 1801 was overturned) sued Jefferson's Secretary of State, James Madison. He was suing to get his job back. He lost, but his case made a huge impact on the future of the Supreme Court.

28

Presidential election of 1800

First time there was a contest between Federalists (John Adams) v. Democratic-Republicans (Thomas Jefferson). Nasty campaign. Jefferson was accused of being an atheist, especially by Congregationalists in New England. He was also accused of having children with his slave, Sally Hemmings (he denied this).

29

1800 election - a first

First time in the modern world that a country's political party changed peacefully based on an election with no violence. The world was more used to changes in power due to violence.

30

Thomas Jefferson's view of the political party that is not in power (the minority party)

In his case it was the Federalists (John Adams) who lost the election of 1800.

He used restraint and compromise when dealing with them...feeling that the minority party should have some power too.

These actions may have led to America's future 2-party system...showing that the minority party didn't have to be squashed and could be gotten along with.

32

War of 1812

Madison asked Congress to declare war in June 1812. Congress was divided but gave the go-ahead.

Madison and Jeffersonian-Republicans (including their war-hawks) saw no choice but to go to war...in order to protect the new United States, this new experiment in democracy and to not continue to seem weak while Britain caused problems for America.

Federalists strongly disagreed with going to war. They tended to side more with Britain and against the idea of having the US side with France/Napolean.

Some New England/Federalist governors refused to send their militia men to fight for the US, and some even aided British troops in Canada.

Didn't seem like a strong start or that the states were very "United" at the start of the war of 1812.

Because of disunity, the War of 1812 is one of America's worst-fought wars. Lesson: bad idea to lead a divided/apathetic people into war.

Good outcome though: Americans came out of the war with a renewed sense of nationalism that inspired activities like building roads, protecting America's Manufacturing and defending the authority of the federal government.

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