Flashcards in C2 - The Planting of English America 1500-1733 Deck (46):
1558. Became Queen of England. Protestant. Made England Protestant. Ambitious about exploring New World.
Carolina (South & North)
Formed in 1670 - named for Charles II. King Charles granted this land to 8 of his favorites (Lords Proprietors). Carolina prospered by developing close economic ties with English Indies Islands. Many original settlers came from Barbados, bringing slaves and slave culture with them to Carolina. Some native Savannah Indians were sold into slavery on sugar plantations in Barbados. Rice became a major export for the Carolinas - more slaves from Africa with experience in rice cultivation were brought in. 1712: North and South Carolina were separated.
Jamaica (West Indies)
1655 became controlled by England. Sugar was main crop. Very labor and money intensive to grow. Only rich could afford to start a sugar plantation. large numbers of African slaves were brought to Jamaica.
Founded by John White - everyone disappeared by 1587, 3 years after it was founded. The Lost Colony.
1580. English sailor who stole from Spanish ships.
Virginia Company (Virginia) (Jamestown)
Joint stock company that funded the first settlement at Jamestown, VA. Main purpose was to find gold and a passage through N. America to the Indies. Set sail in 1606 - landed near Chesapeake Bay - Indians attacked. They settled on the James River (named in honor of their King - James I). 100 men landed in May, 1607. Called it Jamestown. It was mosquito-infested and unhealthful - bad place to land. Settlers didn't know how to hunt/fish. Many died.
Lord De La Warr
New Governor for Jamestown - arrived in Spring 1610, just as remaining 60 settlers were despairing, trying to sail back to England. Ruthless with Indians - killed/burned/stole from them.
Act of Toleration
1649 act passed in Maryland. Guaranteed religious toleration to all Christians. No toleration for Jews or Atheists though.
Indian chief who rules James River area before colonists came.
First Anglo-Powhatan War
Ended in 1614. Fighting between English settlers and Indian tribes ruled by Powhatan. Ended with marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe - first known interracial union in VA.
poor white people who bound themselves to work for years to pay their passage to New World.
1799. Iroquois prophet who warned against moral decline of the Iroquois people.
Lord Baltimore (Maryland)
from prominent English Catholic family. Founded Maryland in 1634, to form refuge for fellow Catholics and for financial profit.
Made up of 5 Indian nations: Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas. Founded in late 1500s by Deganawidah and Hiawatha.
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
1644. Powhatan's made one last effort to get rid of the Virginians. They were defeated. Peace treaty of 1646 banished Chesapeake Indians from their native land - created the origins of the Indian reservation system.
Took over at Jamestown in 1608, said to colonists "he who does not work does not eat". Had been subjected to mock execution by Powhatan and saved by Pocahontas. The ritual was intended to show Powhotan's power and show Indians' desire for peaceful relations with settlers. Indians helped provide food to settlers.
Barbados Slave Code/slave codes
1661. Denied most basic rights to slaves - gave masters complete control over them. These slave codes migrated to American from the Caribbean islands. - Carolina adopted a slave code in 1696.
Organized expedition that landed in 1585 on NC's Roanoke Island - off coast of VA. This colony vanished mysteriously.
English law that said only the eldest son was eligible to inherit land in England. Caused younger sons like Gilbert, Raleigh and Drake to seek their fortunes elsewhere...like sailing to the New World.
1660. Time in England after Charles II was restored to the throne. Empire-building (desire for more settlements in America) was increasing.
Iroquois house - 2 nuclear families (parents/children) lived in 1 longhouse - all blood relatives connected through the women's families.
Practice in England where land was off-limits to most people. Caused people who were not landowners to have no land for sheep to graze, for eg. Caused these people to be willing to move to the New World in search of land.
people living on land they have no legal right to. An example: disgruntled Virginians moving to North Carolina.
Ruled by England, but fiercely wanted to stay Catholic when Queen Elizabeth I made England Protestant. Religious unrest since.
Became leader of England in 1649, after King Charles I (who had dismissed Parliament in 1629 and generally ruled during a time of civil war in England) was beheaded. Ruled for 10 years before Charles II (son of Charles I) was restored to the throne in 1660.
House of Burgesses
1619. London Company authorized settlers to form this assembly, the first of many miniature parliaments to form in colonies.
Coastal Indians from the Carolinas who were sold into slavery - they went to sugar plantations in the Indies and to New England. By 1710 most coastal Indian tribes were destroyed by the Carolinians.
forerunner of the modern Corporation, This enabled a number of investors to pool their money. Provided financial support for leaders to take groups of settlers to New World.
James Oglethorpe (Georgia)
Founder of GA - 1733. Last colony to be formed. purpose was to be a buffer between French-controlled LA, Spanish-controlled FL, and the English colonies. Oglethorpe wanted GA to be a sanctuary for debtors (a friend of his had died in a debtor's prison). Tried to keep slavery out of GA.
Powhatan's daughter - married John Rolfe. Taken to England in 1617 and received as a Princess. Died when getting ready to return to America. Her infant son made it back to America.
Married Pocahontas, ending the First Anglo-Powhatan War in 1614. Killed in 1622 in Indian attack. Father of Tobacco - perfected methods of raising it. Tobacco industry= economic savior of VA. Europeans had insatiable desire for tobacco from America.
Winter of 1609-1610. 400 settlers made it to Virginia by 1609 - only 60 survived.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
First Englishman to attempt to start a colony in New World. @ Newfoundland. He died at sea in 1583. Half brother to Sir Walter Raleigh.
Support for a King/Queen for an expedition.
3 outposts planted by 3 European powers in 3 distant corners of N. American continent within 3 years.
Spanish - Santa Fe, NM - 1610.
French: Quebec - 1608
English: Jamestown, VA - 1607
English Protestant Reformation
1530 King Henry VIII broke with Catholic Church. Catholics and Protestants battled for decades. In 1558 Protestant Elizabeth I came to power, making Protestantism dominant in England. Result was more rivalry with Catholic Spain. Ireland, ruled by England, battled to stay Catholic. Queen Elizabeth's Army ferociously crushed the Irish Catholics - that religious conflict still persists today.
1588. Showdown between Spain and England in English channel. Phillip II of Spain wanted to invade England (part of Catholic-Protestant unrest between Spain and England). Spanish ships were heavy and hard to move. English ships were more maneuverable, and English routed/destroyed Spanish Armada. One result was that Spain's spirits were dampened and England became the dominant Navy in the North Atlantic Ocean.
England's national spirit bloomed after Spanish Armada defeat
Created a new sense of English national pride, golden age of literature including Shakespeare. Sparked excitement to do more settling in the New World.
named after Queen Elizabeth, the "virgin queen" (she never married)
Charter of Virginia Company
Significant document in American history...it guaranteed overseas settlers the same rights of Englishmen at home.
Became busiest seaport in South. Many English 2nd/3rd sons settled here since they couldn't inherit in England. Brought an aristocratic flavor to Charleston. Known for religious toleration.
Also Rhode Island - were most democratic, most independent minded, least aristocratic of the 13 colonies.