Flashcards in C3 Energy, Biosynthesis Deck (23)
Two steps of photosynthesis
1. light energy stored as ATP and NADPH, oxygen released.
2. ATP and NADPH used to make sugars.
use oxygen to oxidize organic molecules to produce energy
dehydrogenation reactions (reduce/oxidize) carbon
(oxidation/reduction) of carbon is energetically favorable in cells
Lowers the activation energy of a specific reation
Enzymes (do/do not) influence the equilibrium point of the reaction
gibbs free energy equation
An exergonic dG is (favorable/unfavorable)
An endergonic dG is (favorable/unfavorable)
exergonic. dG (>/<) 0
exergonic. dG < 0
Equilibrium is achieved when the free energy is..
equal to zero
How would one move equilibrium toward the product
couple to even more favorable reaction
ATP contain two high-energy ? bonds
This electron carrier is used in catabolic reactions
This electron carrier is used in anabolic reactions
NAD+/NADH is used to drive ? reactions
NADP+/NADPH is used to drive ? reactions
The synthesis of polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are all made possible by the hydrolysis of ?
Cells are in ?, they are not in equilibrium
sum total of all reactions the cell needs to carry out to survive, grow and reproduce
How does a cell follow the second law of thermodynamics
Although parts inside the cell have negative entropy and are more organized, the cell releases heat which increases the entropy of the environment.
dG depends not only in energy stored in individual molecules, but also ?
in concentration of reactant and product