C3 - Settling the Northern Colonies 1619-1700 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C3 - Settling the Northern Colonies 1619-1700 Deck (56):
1

freemen

adult males who were members of Puritan congregations (collectively the Congregational Church). They were allowed to vote on local government issues in MA Bay Colony. Only "visible saints" could be members of Puritan churches so only they could then be freemen and vote.

2

General Court

Representative assembly elected by Puritans in the Bay Colony.

3

King Philip

1675: Massasoit's son, Metacom, but called King Philip by the English settlers. Formed alliance combining many tribes to attack English villages (trying to stop their expansion onto Indian land). He was killed - head put on a spike for years in Plymouth.

4

covenant

Agreement or promise

5

Dutch West India Company

From Netherlands (Dutch). settled islands in the Caribbean. More interested in raiding Spanish ships and stealing riches than in trade. This company also planted New Netherland (later became New York) in 1623 along Hudson River. Interested in fur trade. Bought Manhattan island from Indians. Dutch rules were harsh/no religious toleration of anyone not belonging to Dutch Reformed Church.

6

Glorious Revolution

1688-1689: Bloodless revolution in England. removed unpopular Catholic James II and put in place Protestant William and Mary. This challenge to the English crown caused colonists to rise up against English rules they didn't like.

7

John Calvin

1536: Religious leader wrote his protestant doctrine in his publication: Institutes of the Christian Religion.

8

New England Confederation

1643: First time colonies had banded together. 4 colonies formed the confederation with 2 reps from each colony. They handled issues like defending the colonies from Indians and French.

9

Bible Commonwealth

Another name for MA Bay Colony b/c religious leaders had tremendous power.

10

Mayflower

Ship that carried Pilgrims to Plymouth. 65 days at sea. crowded/102 people/1 died/1 born (baby name: Oceanus).

11

William Bradford

Leader of Pilgrims - voted governor 30 times. self-taught scholar. knew 4 languages.

12

Peter Stuyvesant

1655 Dutch director (hired by Dutch West India Company - not chosen by colonists) led military expedition to banish the Swedish colony (a weak colony set up in Delaware). He had one leg. Indians called him Father Wooden Leg. He was ruthless and didn't believe in democracy/rights of people.

13

predestination

Concept of Calvinism. At moment of creation, God knew who was going to Heaven and who going to Hell.

14

Sir Edmund Andros

1686: Named leader of Dominion of New England. Put in place by England, not colonists. Ruthless...stopped town meetings, put new restrictions in place on courts, the press and land ownership. Set headquarters in Puritan Boston. the people hated him and his soldiers. By 1689 after Glorious Revolution in England, colonists ran Andros out of town - shipped back to England.

15

William Penn

1660: Well to do, athletic Englishman was attracted to Quaker faith. Suffered persecution for this.

1681 he wanted to form a colony as a place for Quakers to escape this cruel treatment. Because the English King owed Penn's father $, he granted land, called Pennsylvania to William Penn. He encouraged settlers to come by offering to grant large plots of land to settlers.

16

Pilgrims (Plymouth colony)

Separatists (who'd moved to Holland 10 years earlier) had negotiated with Virginia Co. to settle in VA. 1620 landed in stony New England (were supposed to land in VA). Only 1/2 were separatists - one non-separatist was Captain Myles Standish.

17

Mayflower Compact

Agreement signed by Pilgrims before getting off ship. Formed a crude government. Signers agreed to follow the will of the majority in making decisions.

18

patroonship

Large estates along the Hudson River, granted by the Dutch government to people who agreed to settle 50 people on them.

19

Separatists

Purest group of Puritans...dedicated extremists. Thought only visible saints should be allowed as church members. But the Church of England allowed all citizens. "Saints" had to share pews with the "damned". King James I saw this line of thinking as threatening to his power, so worked to get separatists out of England. Separatists moved to Holland in 1608. Later wanted to settle in America where they could live their religion/raise their children as they wanted.

20

John Cotton

Religious leader in Bay Colony, Educated at England's Cambridge U, became a strong Puritan. Sometimes preached for 6 hours a day. Said Government had a duty to enforce religious rules.

21

Protestant Reformation

1517: Martin Luther nailed protests to Catholic church to door of Wittenberg's cathedral. Started fever of reform. Lasted for Century in Europe and shaped the beginning of America.

22

Henry Hudson

Hired by Dutch East India Co. to explore for riches. In 1609, he sailed into Delaware Bay and New York Bay looking for shortcut through the continent to the Pacific Ocean. Filed Dutch claim to this area (now New York state)

23

Massachusetts Bay Company

1629: Formed in England to establish a large settlement in Massachusetts (Boston as capital). Formed by non-Separatist (more moderate) Puritans. Stated that they didn't want to separate from Church of England - only from its impurities.

1630: 11 ships/1000 people sailed to MA to form Massachusetts Bay Colony. Many more English people came during "Great Migration"...due to continuing turmoil in England.

24

Dominion of New England

1686: A grouping of colonies (like the New England Confederation), but frowned upon by colonists because it was imposed by London (not homegrown). Included all of New England, then New York and Jersey. Purpose was defense against Indians. Leader: ruthless and unpopular Sir Edumnd Andros. Major goal of Dominion of NE was to enforce England's unpopular Navigation Laws.

25

antinomianism

A very literal view of the Puritan idea of "predestination". States that since God knows from the beginning who will go to Heaven, there's no need to follow church laws.

26

Thomas Hooker

1635: Reverend who led group to settle in Connecticut.

27

Puritans

1530: People who wanted all Catholic traditions banned from the Church of England. Wanted total purification. Believed in Calvinism. Puritans eventually became unhappy with the slow pace totally de-catholicizing the church in England.

28

Protestant ethic

Believed in "a calling" to do God's work on earth. A serious commitment to hard work and worldly pursuits.

29

Navigation Laws

1680s: Laws from England putting restrictions on trade on the colonies. Colonists had been used to freedom in trading goods, so they didn't always follow the laws. Smuggling became common.

30

Quakers

Group arose in England in mid 1600s. AKA: Religious Society of Friends. Called Quakers because they "quaked" when under deep religious emotion. Simple, devoted, democratic, they refused the Church of England and its customers. Because they didn't follow certain rules, they were seen as threat by governments. Treated ruthlessly, killed, imprisoned.

31

franchise

Voting rights - given to "freemen"

32

doctrine of a calling

Belief that God has called people to do his work on earth.

33

Institutes of the Christian Religion

1536: Written by John Calvin. Introductory textbook on Protestant faith.

34

the "elect"

Concept of Calvinism: People who were for sure going to Heaven - decided by God from the moment of creation who these people would be. But the "elect" status of a person could change if they led a wild life.

35

Anne Hutchinson

Challenged Puritan orthodoxy. Argued that people didn't have to follow church law. Had 14 children. Was banned from Bay Colony b/c of her beliefs. Moved to Rhode Island then New York. Killed by Indians

36

"visible saints"

Concept of Calvinism: After someone experience conversion they had to live a visibly holy, sanctified life.

37

Fundamental Orders

1639: Document drafted in Connecticut. Like a constitution.

38

Roger Williams

Minister in Salem, MA. Personable, popular, spoke his mind, radical. An extreme separatist. Wanted his fellow clergymen to completely break from Church of England.

Banished from MA, he founded Rhode Island in 1636. Religious tolerance and freedom...government did not enforce religious rules. Tolerance for Catholics, Jews, Quakers. No taxes collected to support a state church.

Voting rights (suffrage) was given to all men (not just religious or favored people).

People unwelcome anywhere else moved to Rhode Island. Puritans in Bay Colony called it "the sewer"

39

John Winthrop

MA Bay Colony's 1st Governor. Prosperous, educated - thought he was "called" by God to lead. His and others' skills/education helped Bay colony prosper at fur trading, fishing, shipbuilding.

40

Calvinism

Doctrine of John Calvin. Stated God was all-good/powerful. Humans were weak/wicked. Included concepts like predestination and elects.

41

William Laud

Archbishop of Church of England in 1629. He wanted Puritans out of the Church of England. His actions were sanctioned by King Charles I...King Charles dismissed Parliament in 1629 due to so many Puritans in Parliament disagreeing with the Church.

42

great Puritan Migration

1630s: 70,000 people migrated from England to colonies and West Indies islands like Barbados.

43

Martin Luther

1517: German religious man who nailed protests against the Catholic church to Wittenberg's cathedral.

44

Massasoit

1621: Signed treaty with Pilgrims and helped celebrate first Thanksgiving. Wampanoag Indian chief.

45

conversion

Concept of Calvinism: God's free gift of being saved. Thought to be an intense personal experience where God let it be known to an "elect" that they were going to Heaven.

46

Northern vs. southern colonies - compare/contrast

Common language and allegiance to Mother England. Different economies, political systems, settlement patterns, values.

47

Northern vs. southern colonies - what drew settlers to those regions?

South - riches from Tobacco. North - religious devotion.

48

Protestant Reformation: philosophy of protestants

Denounced Popes and Priests. Declared that Bible alone is the source of God's word.

49

Winter: 1620-1621

Harsh. Only 44 of 102 Pilgrims survived. Next autumn 1621: first Thanksgiving...Pilgrims were doing better.

50

MA Bay Colony

Quickly became biggest/most influential of New England settlements. Eventually had Pilgrims' Plymouth colony merge with it.

51

"We shall be as a city upon a hill - a beacon to humanity"

Famous quote by John Winthrop. showed his and people in MA Bay Colony's belief that God put them there to build a holy society to be a model for other men.

52

New Netherland becomes New York

1664: English colonies were suspicious of this one Dutch colony. Wanted to take over. England's King Charles II granted this area to his brother, Duke of York. Sent a military squadron much stronger than Dutch defenses. Peter Stuyvesant was forced to surrender to the English.

Early on New York grew slowly. It was very autocratic/aristocratic with large plots of land given to favored, rich Englishmen. This atmosphere discouraged more settlers from choosing New York.

53

Interesting facts about New York

Because the Dutch (when NY was New Amsterdam) had directors/rulers who were ruthless to Indians. Indians retaliated against the colonists. As defense, settlers built a wall on Manhattan island...still called Wall Street.

Dutch culture/names still influence NY. Harlem, Brooklyn and Hell Gate = Dutch names. Other Dutch contributions: Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, sauerkraut, bowling, sleighing, skating and golf.

54

Interesting facts about Pennsylvania

Tolerant of all religions. No tax-supported church. Great relations with Indians/treated them well. Quakers were good businessmen/traders. Settlers flocked here - became one of the biggest colonies.

Philadelphia: means city of brotherly love in Greek.

Philadelphia was a well-planned city with wide streets.

55

Delaware

Named after Lord De La Warr, a harsh military governor who got to VA in 1610.

Delaware was under Pennsylvania's control until after the Am. Revolution.

Formerly this area was settled by Swedish settlers so Swedish culture remained.

56

Middle Colonies

New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania. Fertile soil, known as bread colonies due to wheat growing (better than rocky soil in New England colonies).

Landholdings: larger than NE colonies, but smaller than large spread-out plantations in Southern colonies.

Industry: Less manufacturing than in NE, but more than in rural Southern colonies.

Middle colonies were most ethnically diverse.

Most religiously tolerant.

Benjamin Franklin was drawn to Philadelphia at age 17 in 1720 because of its culture of tolerance, openness, intelligent people.

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