Flashcards in C34 - The Great Depression and the New Deal 1933-1939 Deck (41):
Public Works Administration
Formed through New Deal laws. Responsible for public projects. Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River was one example - largest structure built by humans since the Great Wall of China.
The "three R's"
Relief, recovery and reform - the 3 Rs of Roosevelt's New Deal. The 1st 2 Rs were short-term goals. Reform=the long-term goal.
Securities and Exchange Commission
Formed in 1934 by Congress. Became the watchdog agency over publicly-traded companies. Company owners were legally required to give honest financial info. about their companies so that investors would know about stocks that they bought. This was a way to protect consumers/stock purchasers/investors.
Committee for Industrial Organizations
Labor Union group that ended up organizing the auto industry.
FDR's political model and a new idea: Forming a coalition of support between the Democratic party, minorities, labor unions and citiy/local government leaders to get more support during elections.
This model worked to keep Democrats in power for decades.
National Recovery Act
New deal law: Created minimum wage laws, rules that shortened the work day (to make room for more people to have jobs @ fewer hours).
FDR's Secretary of Labor. She was the 1st female cabinet member.
Works Progress Administration
Congress formed in 1935 to employ people at government-funded public works projects like road building, bridge building, etc.
FDR made him leader of the Federal Emergency Relief Admin. that gave states $ to distribute to people.
Group of college professors and intellectuals who wrote most of Franklin D. Roosevelt's speeches, and later wrote most of the New Deal laws.
Group formed in 1934 as a political conservative opposition group...opposing FDR and New Deal laws...worried that New Deal laws would lead to socialism.
Herbert Hoover was a backer of the Liberty League.
1933: Banking reform, which created the FDIC (federal deposit insurance corporation) This insured people's bank deposits so that if a bank failed, depositors would not lose all of their $.
Leader of the Public Works Administration.
Agricultural Adjustment Act
New Deal law that had the federal government paying farmers to produce less, with the goal of inflating or increasing prices. The $ to pay the farmers came from a tax placed on processors (like millers who milled flour). These processors then passed that increase on to consumers.
In 1936, the Supreme Court killed this law by saying it was unconstitutional.
Referred to the act of working very slowly or not at all. FDR's programs gave public jobs to some people just to get them employed...even if there was not much work to do. "make work" jobs.
1933: Starting in March, 1933 - the first hundred days of the new Presidency under FDR and the new Democrat-majority Congress.
FDR demanded and Congress passed without much discussion many New Deal laws.
Twentieth and Twenty-first amendments
20th Amendment made the President's term begin in January instead of March. Shortened the "lame duck" time between an election and the day a President is inaugurated.
21st Amendment - reversed Prohibition and made alcohol legal again.
Tennessee Valley Authority
New Deal law that formed this government agency, which was responsible for projects that would conserve water (through dam building), create cheap power (by harnessing power from the water - hydroelectric) and employ many desperately poor unemployed people.
Cities were allowed to grow in the areas where power was available and people were working.
This project was confined to TN and did not go nationwide, because there were many critics of the idea of government having this kind of wide-ranging power.
Senator who used the misery and widespread feelings of discontent to make huge unrealistic promises to citizens...just to get support. Said he would take from the rich and give to the poor and make "Every Man a King". He was killed in 1935.
Catholic priest who spoke out loudly against FDR's New Deal. He became anti-Semetic and so over the top, that the Catholic Church silenced him.
Late 1933. A prolonged drought and high winds caused topsoil and dust to blow around. People wore face masks as they watched all of the topsoil from their farms blow away.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Became President in 1933. Distant cousin of Theodore Roosevelt.
Handsome and well-liked - one of the best public speakers (orators) of the time. He was charming both on the public stage and in private...which helped him to get his ideas accepted.
Wife= Eleanor Roosevelt - very helpful in getting him elected, first as Governor of NY and then as President. She was very well-liked and influential. Their own relationship rocky at times due to his infidelity.
His speeches and plans were often very vague. Much of the writing of the actual laws was left to the Brain Trust - a team that was in favor of very progressive reforms.
Said "The Only Thing we have to fear is fear itself".
Promised a "New Deal" for the American people.
His charming personality combined with the nation's desperation due to the Great Depression to give him a big win for the White House.
He did not always lead with a plan in mind...governed "off the cuff".
Social Security Act
1935. This law was the greatest victory of the New Dealers. Gave a federal check to old-age Americans and some with disabilities. It also gave unemployment benefits to those out of work.
This was paid for by a new payroll tax.
Republicans very strongly against this move...saying that it encouraged people to not work so they could get free benefits/$.
Laws passed by Congress during the first 100 days of FDRs presidency. Included laws dealing with unemployment insurance, old age insurance, minimum wage laws, conservation/natural resources, restrictions on Child labor.
Some examples of New Deal laws: Creating the FDIC, monetary policies which took the US off of the Gold Standard (goal was inflation). Also the CCC was created.
National Labor Relations Board
1935 law passed by Congress. Formed a pro-labor agency. Re-asserted the right of Labor Unions to organize and bargain collectively.
Retired Dr. who talked about a plan to give every senior citizen a monthly check.
Federal Housing Authority
Formed by FDR in 1934. The FHA was very popular. It gave loans to people who wanted to improve/build homes.
George W. Norris
NE Senator who pushed for the TVA. There was a Dam named after him.
John L. Lewis
Leader of the Labor Union CIO
Idea dealing with fair pay to Farmers for their crops.
First lady - wife of Franklin D. Roosevelt. A very active first lady. Well loved.
1937: FDR announced a plan to ask Congress to pass a law that would allow him to appoint extra Supreme Court Justices. He came up with the idea because he knew he had pushed through many of his New Deal reforms, but some had been struck down by the Supreme Court as unconstitutional.
He wanted to push even more of his reforms and planned to "pack" the Supreme Court with justices that would be loyal to him.
This caused great public outcry. Many thought FDR wanted to become dictator.
AKA: NLRB act.
Alfred M. Landon
1936 Republican Presidential candidate running against Democrat FDR.
1935 Supreme Court case. Held that Congress should not delegate its law-making power to the President. Also said that Federal govt. could not control a local business.
Civilian Conservation Corps
CCC: 1933 as part of New Deal laws. Created this program to employ around 3 million men to do natural resources work like forest fire fighting, flood control, etc.
Author. Winner of Nobel Peace Prize for Literature. He had spent time employed under one of the New Deal programs.
1939: wrote Grapes of Wrath...stories about people driven from their homes (migrants) due to the Dust Bowl.
G.M. sit-down strike
1936. Auto workers used this technique to strike against GM (sitting in prevented the company from bringing in replacement workers).
Finally GM did recognize this new labor union.
John Maynard Keynes
British economist who believed in planned "deficit" (debt) spending in order to stimulate the economy.
"Keynesian-ism" became the new economic thinking for several decades then.
Formerly conservative Justice who began ruling on the side of more liberal justices.