Flashcards in C4 - American life in the 17th Century 1607-1692 Deck (25):
1670: Governor of VA. Dealt with Bacon's Rebellion. Berkeley crushed it with brutal cruelty...hanging 20 rebels.
1662: laws passed in VA said blacks and their children were property (chattels) for life of their white masters. Other colonies made it a crime to teach slaves to read/write.
Mid 1600s Puritan preachers started a new form of sermon...scolding people for being less holy/pious than earlier generations.
Slaves' trip by ship from Africa to America. Terrible, hot conditions. Sometimes 20% would die on this trip.
VA and MD had this system to encourage importation of servants. If a colonist paid for passage of a laborer, that colonist got right to buy 50 acres of land. This motivated colonists to bring large amounts of servants to the region so they could acquire large amounts of land. In 1600s, indentured servants made up more than 3/4 of all immigrants in VA and MD.
Poor English farmers worked for years for a colonist who needed a laborer. The colonist paid for their travel from england. After years of work they were paid "freedom dues"...small amount of food/clothes and may small piece of land.
Hard but hopeful life.
1676: 1000 rebels (poor freemen, former indentured servants, discontented at lack of land, opportunity, women, and lack of help dealing with unfriendly Indians). Murdered Indians, went to VA capital and burned buildings. Ran Gov. William Berkeley out of Jamestown .
1670. poor VA planter that led Bacon's Rebellion. Suddenly died of disease during the rebellion.
1689-1691 in New York City. Bloody fight between New York's lordly aristocratic landholders and merchants who were trying to start out.
1662: New arrangement in Puritan church to admit a members (but not full members) unconverted children. Started to erase distinction between "elect" and other members.
Royal African Company
1672-1698: Charter given by King of England to capture/trade slaves. Charter ended in 1698 and some colonists quickly got into this profitable business.
W. African religious dance brought to colonial America by slaves - contributed to start of jazz music.
New York City Slave Revolts of 1712
12 whites were killed and 21 blacks executed. Slaves revolted because they longed for freedom.
Stono River Rebellion
1739: 50 blacks revolted and tried to go to Florida (ruled by Spain at the time).
Overall Slaves were more manageable labor force than white indentured servants.
First Families of VA (FFVs)
Families that had owned land in VA for decades. They owned huge amounts of land and held the most political power. 70 percent of VA legislature came from these families.
"New England Conscience"
New Englanders developed tightly-knit society - they were concerned about moral health of their communities. First to lead crusade to banish black slavery.
Founded in 1636 by MA puritans to train boys for ministry.
New England society was more planned/tight/educated. By contrast the first southern college, William and Mary, was formed 80 years later.
William and Mary
Founded in 1693. First college in Virgina/South
Salem Witch trials
1692: 20 women killed. Large scale witch hunts were happening in Europe at the time.
Also a result of unsettled social conditions and changing economy of Massachusetts at that time. Growing market economy vs. subsistence farmers. All accused witches were from families involved in the Market economy.
1693 - ended by governor after his own wife was accused.
Unhealthy Chesapeake (Virginia & Maryland)
Short life spans for early settlers. Diseases: Malaria, dysentery, typhoid.
Few women - family life fragile - few families - most marriages ended with early death of spouse.
Better by 1700. Children born in area developed immunity to diseases. More women came allowing for more families. VA and Maryland grew large populations.
Grew very well in Chesapeake area (VA & Maryland/southern colonies). sold for huge profits.
Tobacco ruins soil, so growers continued moving, taking more land, provoking fights with Indians.
Created need for lots of labor. Chesapeake colonists reproduced too slowly to provide lots of workers, Indians died quickly, African slaves expensive. England still had economic problems, so poor farmers would come to Chesapeake as indentured servants.
Main crop was rice. SC known as rice basket of British Empire. Tough life/conditions for slaves on Rice plantations.
Slave conditions: Chesapeake area vs. deep south (S. Carolina)
Chesapeake: Tobacco - somewhat easier life - Tobacco fields less physically demanding. plantations closer together/smaller, so slaves had more contact with other slaves. Life was healthy enough that slave numbers were maintained by families/babies.
Deeper south: Rice and indigo plantations huge/far apart - no ability to see other slaves/friends. Work unhealthy and so physically demanding. Only way to maintain slave population was to bring in new slaves.
In healthier areas, African Americans born on American soil - African customs mixed with American in language, music, etc.
New England vs. Southern colonies: family life
New England: Environment was healthier (clean water, cooler temps kept disease rates lower), so men & women lived longer, stayed married, had many children - moms raised children. Divorce was rare, pregnancy before marriage - rare. Puritan New England had laws to defend integrity of marriage. Women convicted of adultery had to wear "A" sewed on to all garments (basis for Nathanial Hawthorne's 1850 tale, "The Scarlett Letter".
South: climate more unhealthy. People owned huge plantations - not many towns/cities/roads for people to gather. People died young, so family life was harder to establish. pregnancy before marriage common - family unit not strong.