Flashcards in C5 - Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution 1700-1775 Deck (33):
North Carolina - small, nasty rebellion led by Scots-Irish.
Due to spread of Commercial Farming, English lords raised the rent for Scots-Irish (Scottish lowlanders) for working the land or forced them from the land. This caused them to migrate to Ireland where they were persecuted again b/c they were Protestant and Ireland = Catholic.
1753-1784. Slave girl brought to Boston at 8 years old. A poet.
1730s - 1740s: religious revival swept through all colonies. Started in MA by pastor Jonathan Edwards. Preached that salvation could not be gained by good works - preached complete dependence on God's grace. George Whiefield also great emotional preacher. much more emotional way of worshiping than in the past.
Led to "new light" centers of learning: Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, Dartmouth Universities.
Michel-Guillaume de Crevecoeur
Settler from France. In 1770 wrote about Diversity in America - said America was a "strange mixture of blood" that couldn't be found in any other country. Referring to multiple ethnic groups together in one country, intermarrying, etc.
Indian tribe in North Carolina.
tar, pitch, rosin, turpentine - items used to make/repair ships.
1764: Philadelphia: Armed march to protest Quaker's lenient policies toward Indians. Led by Scots-Irish.
old and new lights
More traditional/reserved preachers as in the past vs. new lights like George Whitefield and more fiery, emotional preachers of the Great Awakening. Old lights got their authority from education, new lights from fiery speaking skills.
Scots-Irish - 7% of population of colonies in 1775 - came to colonies b/c they were persecuted in Ireland (they were protestant & Ireland is Catholic). Their settlements were West of land already taken by Quakers and Germans (just to the east of Appalachian mtns.). They were rugged frontiersmen and fought with Indians as they pushed West.
Brought Whiskey distilling skills.
Did not like British government b/c they had been forcibly moved to Ireland before being treated badly there.
Led 1764 armed marches: Paxton Boys and regulator movement.
Scots-Irish were hotheads...led rebellions.
Andrew Jackson was Scots-Irish. About 12 future presidents were of Scots-Irish descent.
Rum - Slaves - Molasses. Start in New England with rum - sail to Gold Coast of Africa. Trade rum for slaves. sail to West Indies (Caribbean islands) and trade slaves for Molasses. Take Molasses back to New England where it was turned into Rum. Repeat the whole process.
John Peter Zenger
1735: legal case involved this newspaper printer. Zenger was charged with a crime for printing something negative about the royal (British kin supported) governor in New York. Zenger won in court. Resulted in idea of freedom of the press. This allowed newspapers to print critical articles about public officials.
1738: Evangelical preacher. Great orator/great voice for preaching. Message similar to Jonathan Edwards (human helplessness/divine mercy). Held huge revivals where people jumped, groaned, shrieked, rolled in the snow as they were "saved". This was a new fiery style of preaching.
1733: pushed by British west indies islands. British law passed to restrict American colonists from trading with French West Indies islands. Bad for economy of American colonies. They ignored the law. Built more resentment between colonists and Britain.
1734: Preached that salvation could not be gained by good works - preached complete dependence on God's grace.
John S. Copley
@1775, largest city in colonies (and one of only 4 cities)
Church of England - approved by English Government. Did not agree with Scottish lowlanders who were Presbyterian.
People who liked the more emotional worship of Great Awakening preachers joined Baptist churches.
Ireland was Catholic. Some Catholics in colonies, but mostly Protestant.
Governor of New York (cousin of Queen Anne of Britain). Put in place by British crown, not the colonists. Not fit to lead...drunk, dishonest, embezzler, religious bigot.
1720: 9 days to travel from Boston to Philadelphia. Writer - his autobiography is a classic. Wrote poor Richards Almanac - emphasized virtues like thrift, industry, morality and common sense.
He was the only top scientist produced in the colonies (kite-flying/lightning experiment, invented Franklin stove, invented bifocal glasses).
Established the first library in the colonites...in Philadelphia.
1775: Population growth in the 13 colonies that rebelled against England (other English colonies in Canada and Caribbean islands did not join the revolutionary war).
2.5 million people. Ratio: 3 British subjects for every 1 colonist. So Colonies were gaining power. Population growth came mostly from births on American soil, but some immigrants and slaves.
90% lived in rural areas. Most populous colonies: VA, MA, MD, PA.
Only 4 cities: Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Charleston.
1775: Ethnic groups in 13 colonies
6% German (1/3 of population of PA was German): Called Pennsylvania Dutch (mispronunciation of Deutsch). Clung to their German customs (no loyalty to British king)
Scots-Irish - 7% - came to colonies b/c they were persecuted in Ireland (they were protestant & Ireland Catholic). Their settlements were West of land already taken by Quakers and Germans (just to the east of Appalachian mtns.) Settlements made up the "Great Wagon Road" in foothills of Appalachian mts.
5% - other European groups: French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss and Scots Highlanders (most with no loyalty to British king)
20% African slaves (mostly in southern colonies)
All of these groups mingled/intermarried forming a multicultural society like no other on earth.
1775: Societal structure
Colonies offered more opportunities to move up from being poor, than any European country. Indentured servants could even end up owning land.
But as less land was available (most was already claimed), there was a growing class of poor homeless people in cities like Boston...they survived by charity of others.
South: planters with many slaves had most power.
"jayle birds" - convicts from Britain, forced to come to colonies. Many became respectable citizens.
Black slaves were at the bottom. No power. No chance to rise up the social ladder.
Christian minister: most honored
MD (doctor): poorly training/not highly thought of. "Bleeding" was a favorite remedy - sometimes fatal. Smallpox and Diphtheria killed thousands.
Lawyers: not looked upon favorably. Most parties presented their own cases in court.
Colonists enjoyed highest standard of living than in any other place on earth.
Farming: leading industry. 90% of colonists involved in farming. Tobacco in MD & VA, Grain in middle colonies (NY & PA).
Fishing: which stimulated the shipbuilding industry too.
Shipping: industry grew by shipping goods (fruit, gold, wine, etc.) between colonies, caribbean islands and europe. Also triangular trade was profitable.
Manufacturing: Rum, beaver hats, cloth.
Items used in British naval shipbuilding industry: tar, pitch rosin, turpentine were sought from colonies to Britain could keep its Naval ships in good shape.
1700s: poor. dirt roads either dusty or muddy. Boat travel used where possible on rivers, etc.
Mid-1700s postal service established. Secrecy was a problem/mail often read by deliverers.
Important "cradle of democracy". places where all classes of people, travelers, etc. gathered and shared ideas. Samuel Adams hung out at Boston's Green Dragon Tavern, a hotbed of agitation to gain support for Revolutionary movement.
1775: Religious denominations
Anglican (Church of England): Mostly southern colonies: NY city, MD, VA, NC, SC, GA. Handicapped by not having Bishop in the colonies...ministers had to go to England to be ordained. Anglican ministers were scorned. College of William and Mary started in 1693 to train better ministers.
Congregational (formed from Puritan churches): Mostly New England colonies: MA, CT, NH.
Other colonies had no tax-supported churches. Many colonists worshiped or did not worship as they wanted...still a good place for religious tolerance.
Britain idea: education a blessing reserved for aristocrats and men...not everyone.
New England started schools early to teach all people to read the Bible. Goal: make people good Christians (not necessarily good citizens). Also colleges to teach ministers/pastors.
Distance between families = challenging in the south. wealthy families used tutors, not schools.
Schools & colleges that did exist used harsh punishments for kids. Focused on doctrine, not independent thinking.
Benjamin Franklin started the U of Pennsylvania, the first college free from church control.
1775: Politics (vs. arts/sciences)
Colonists were behind Europe (the Old World) in science and in art, literature, etc. (not much time to read or enjoy art because of the hard work of living in the colonies).
Colonies were way ahead in Politics. Most democratic society on earth (meaning more everyday citizens had more power than in any other country. Most colonies had 2-house governments (one controlled by Britain, the other by representatives of the colony). Sometimes Governors appointed by the King clashed with the other house run by colonists. This started ideas, debates, etc. and led to the revolution because colonists learned how to have and craved more control over their own lives. They resented any power attempted by the British king/queen.