Flashcards in CA Wine Law & Mendocino County Deck (109):
*What is the US agency that regulates wine labeling?
Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) of the Treasury Department [not the ATF]
*What are the US requirements for country, state, county, AVA and vineyard labeling for varietal labeling?
minimum is 75%, true for USA, State, County, AVA and Vineyard labels. However, CA, OR and WA have more stringent requirements. [var or variance is ironically none]
*What are the US requirements for country, state, county, AVA and vineyard labeling for origin?
75% for country, state and county, 85% for AVA, 95% for vineyard [O, operator > 311]
*What are the US requirements for country, state, county, AVA and vineyard labeling for vintage?
USA - prohibited; 85% for state and county; 95% for AVA and vineyard [vin85 > (1)022]
*What does AVA stand for?
American Viticultural Area (refers only to a geographic location) [AVITA, not Association, not Viniculture]
What are the US requirements for alcohol content of "table wine"?
7-14% abv is 'table wine" - key is not more than 14%:
*What are the US requirements for leeway of accuracy of alcohol content of less than or equal to 14%?
accurate within 1.5%, but not labeled over 14%
*What are the US requirements for leeway of accuracy of alcohol content of greater than 14%?
accurate within 1.0%, but not labeled at or below 14%
What are the labeling limits of wine of 14.5%
14.1 to 15.5%
What are the labeling limits of wine of 13.8%
12.3 to 14.0%
*What percent of US wine is made in California?
*How many wineries are in California?
3800 bonded wineries plus 4600 growing farms
What does "Organic" labeling mean for sulfites?
No sulfites may be added and total sulfites must be less than 10 ppm.
What does "Organic" labeling mean in general?
100% from certified-organic vineyards and winery, no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides; may use USDA organic label - a very high bar
What does "Made from Organic Grapes" labeling mean specifically for sulfites?
may add sulfites up to 100 ppm, may not use the USDA organic label; for marketing purposes addition of sulfites for "freshness" is often flaunted.
What does "Made from Organic Grapes" labeling mean in general?
100% from certified-organic vineyards, must not use USDA label
What does "Biodynamic" labeling mean in general?
Organic plus a self-contained ecosystem and tasks timed with lunar calendar; certified by Demeter; no US law.
What does "Sustainable" labeling mean in general?
Considers emissions, resource consumption, costs; multiple certifying programs; no US law.
Is "Estate Bottled" a legal term?
Yes, winery and vineyard must both be located in the stated AVA; winery must own or control the vineyard sources; production and bottling must be a continuous process (but this is often flaunted in large estates; hence the rationale for large AVA's)
Is "Reserve" a legal term in the USA?
No, in contrast to requirements in Spain for "reserva"
Is "Meritage" a legal term?
Yes, indicates a specified blend with no single variety over 90%.
What varieties are allowed in a red Meritage?
6 Bordeaux (CS, CF, Mer, Mal, PV, Carm) plus St. Macaire and Gros Verdot, plus up to 10% of other vinifera grapes.
What is the meaning of "Old Vine"? Is it a legal term?
It typically refers to vines at least 25 years old; it is not a legal term.
What varieties are allowed in a white Meritage?
Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon and Sauvignon Vert [3 S's]
*What and when was the first AVA?
Augusta AVA in Missouri, June 1980
What and when was the first AVA in CA?
Napa Valley in 1981.
What percent of US AVA's are in California?
just over half, 119 of 221
What percent of wine purchases in the US are California wine?
*Name California's 4 large regional AVAs.
North Coast, Central Coast, South Coast and Sierra Foothills [not Central Valley]
*Name the grapes allowed in Coro Mendocino wines?
Zinfandel (40-70%), Syrah, Petite Sirah, Carignane, Sangiovese, Grenache, Dolcetto, Charbono, Barbera, Primitivo [Z+CPBSS+3 O's: CDP Charbono, Dolcetto, Primitivo; Zinfandel is mandatory!]
*Name the 6 sub-AVAs contained within Mendocino AVA.
Cole Ranch AVA, Anderson Valley AVA, McDowell Valley AVA, Potter Valley AVA, Redwood Valley AVA [CAMPeR] also includes Yorkville Highlands AVA. [Not Covelo AVA, Eagle Peak Mendocino County AVA]
*Which Medocino County AVA ranks with the top Pinot Noir regions in North America?
Anderson Valley AVA
What was first modern vineyard in Anderson Valley?
Edmeades 1963 (not bonded)
What the first bonded vineyard in Anderson Valley?
*What is North America's smallest (in total size, not planted area) AVA?
Cole Ranch AVA, 187 acres,
What winery owns all the vineyard acreage in Cole Ranch AVA?
Esterlina Winery, name is a Spanish translation of the family name Sterling, the largest African-American family owned winery in the USA.
Historically, which white grapes are associated with Anderson Valley?
Gewurztraminer, Riesling, Pinot Gris [RPG]
Name the 4 top sparkling wine producers in Anderson Valley.
Roederer, Schaffenberger, Handley and Signal Ridge
What are the top 3 grapes of Cole Ranch AVA?
Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot [odd mix]
*Name the California county with the highest percentage of organic vineyards.
Which Mendocino vintage is associated with smoke taint issues?
2008 [ring of fire > circles > 2008]
Where were the first vineyards planted in Mendocino County?
Redwood Valley in 1850's (after Gold Rush)
What is oldest continuously operating winery in Mendocino County?
What the main geographic division within Mendocino County?
Within the county, the Mendocino Range segment of the larger California Coast Ranges essentially divides the region into two climatic spheres.
Describe the climate of the western part of Mendocino County.
The land to the west of the Mendocino Range, closest to the coast tend to have more maritime climate that includes more cooling and rain influences from the Pacific Ocean.
Describe the climate of the eastern part of Mendocino County.
East of the Mendocino Range, the climate turns warmer and more Mediterranean around Ukiah and along the path of the Russian River as it makes it way southward to Sonoma County.
Name the cooler parts of Mendocino County.
Among the wine regions in the cooler western area of Mendocino County are the Mendocino Ridge and the Anderson Valley AVA's. Temperatures in Yorkville Highlands are moderate.
When was Prohibition? Which amendments were associated?
1920-33. The 18th Amendment passed in 1919 with enforcement starting in Jan 1920 until Dec 1933 when it was repealed by the 21st Amendment.
Where did Andre Tchelistcheff originally come from and then later first work in California?
Born to an aristocratic family in Moscow, Russia in 1901, he later studied in France. He was recruited by Georges de Latour to work at Beaulieu Vineyards in 1938, .
What was Tchelistcheff's most famous label?
Georges de Latour Private Reserve (Cabernet)
What 3 wine making practices did Tchelistcheff champion?
frost protection, temperature-controlled fermentation and malolactic fermentation [Tch'eff > FFF; also microfiltering]
Name 2 northernmost Mendocino County AVA's.
Dos Rios AVA, Covelo AVA
Name 3 Mendocino County AVAs directly west of the town of Mendocino.
from west to east: Eagle Peak Mendocino County AVA, Redwood Valley AVA, Potter Valley AVA
*What is the only non-continguous AVA in America?
Mendocino Ridge AVA
What is a local specialty of Mendocino Ridge AVA since the late 1880's?
What is the primary winery of Eagle Peak Mendocino County AVA?
Masut Vineyard and Winery, a small batch Pinor Noir specialist, founded by 3rd generation Feltzer brothers [not to be confused with Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak AVA that is mostly in Sonoma County]
What is the only winery of Dos Rios AVA?
Vin De Tevis
What rivers are associated with Dos Rios AVA?
Eel River and Middle Fork of Eel River (actually named after lampreys which are smaller than eels and boneless)
*What is biggest difference between labeling laws of US and California?
Origin: US states must be 75%, California must be 100%
What is maximum content of a single variety in "Meritage" blend?
Covelo AVA was granted in 2006 based on unique climatic conditions. What are these?
Covelo AVA has a continental climate with the high peaks surrounding the valley shielding it from the influence of the Pacific Ocean. The growing season is one of the shortest in Mendocino County and the area experiences one of the widest diurnal temperature variation in the region. [Covelo > Continental Climate]
What is the basis of the name of Mendocino County?
The county's name comes from Cape Mendocino, named by early Spanish navigators in honor of Antonio de Mendoza, Viceroy of New Spain.
Fetzer Vineyards was started when and in what county?
Mendocino County in 1968.
Who owns Fetzer Vineyards now?
Concha y Toro (Chile)
California vintages are often consistent. In 2008, two unusual factors affected the vintage in Mendocino. What were they?
Late frost (loss of crop) and forest fires (smoke taint in the reds)
Roederer Estate is the California outpost of Champagne Louis Roederer. Which domaine is larger, Mendocino or Champagne?
Mendocino! (580 acres) is slightly larger, as the Champagne house (530 acres) contracts one-third of its grapes from local vineyards
What is the relationship between Roederer Estate and Scharffenberger Cellars?
Both are located in Anderson Valley and controlled by Champagne Louis Roederer. Maisons Marques & Domaines is the US distributor for both.
What is a bonded winery?
Government agencies typically require winery owners to file surety bonds to protect the state against the anticipated tax liability. (Claims on alcohol tax bonds are rare.)
What is the US tax on wine?
$1.07/gallon to 14.0% abv (about $0.21/750 ml bottle); $1.54/gallon for >14% abv; $3.40/gallon for sparkling. However, there is a significant tax credit for wineries that make less than 100,000 cases/year.
What is the conventional wisdom about the place of California in the world of wine making?
" a hot spot looking for cold places to make wine"
What percent of world wine is made in California?
Which type of estates supported the legal definition of "estate bottled?"
Ironically, the large estates, not the small estates. At small estates, wine is likely to be "estate bottled." But large estates proposed legal language that would allow grapes from multiple vineyards to be combined in an "estate bottled" manner.
May a winery refer to its vineyard practices or wines as “Biodynamic” without being certified?
A winery may not refer to itself, its vineyard practices, or its wines as “Biodynamic” without being
certified. Demeter, a non-profit established in the US in 1985, owns the certification mark BIODYNAMIC® to protect the Farm Standard and to ensure a marketplace definition for the benefit of consumers and trade.
What makes a winery or vineyard Biodynamic?
In order for a winery or a vineyard to refer to itself as Biodynamic, it must have achieved certification
through Demeter by adhering to the Demeter Farm Standard for a minimum of three years if
conventionally farmed, or a minimum of one year if organically farmed.
What are the key historical differences between National Organic Program (NOP) and Demeter Biodynamic®?
NOP established in US in 2002; Demeter established in Europe (after Rudolf Steiner and the Farm Standard) in 1928, and in the US in 1985
What are the key differences between National Organic Program and Demeter Biodynamic® in terms of the use of imported materials?
NOP permits imported organic fertilizers and pesticides; Biodynamic® reduces imported materials by addressing its needs from within the farming system:
A) Fertility delivered via a nutrient rich soil component, called humus, created by the: Integration of livestock, Intensive use of green manure (cover crops grown to add nutrients to soil) and legumes, rotation of crops, application of field/compost sprays
B) Pest and Disease Control: Creation of biologically diverse habitat encourages balanced predator prey relationships, Humus development contributes to insect and disease resistance
C) Water: Increased humus levels result in soil’s ability to retain moisture.
What are the key differences between National Organic Program and Demeter Biodynamic® in terms of the Livestock feed source?
-NOP allows for organic feed imported to the farm from anywhere in the world
-Biodynamic® requires 50% of livestock feed be grown on farm.
What are the key differences between National Organic Program and Demeter Biodynamic® in terms of the Biodiversity requirements?
There are no specific NOP biodiversity requirements; Biodynamic® requires a biodiversity set- aside of ten percent of the total farm acreage
What are the key differences between National Organic Program and Demeter Biodynamic® in terms of the Farm certification?
NOP is crop focused and allows for a designated parcel to be certified; Biodynamic® is farm focused and requires that the whole farm be certified
What are the key differences between National Organic Program and Demeter Biodynamic® in terms of the Product certification?
-NOP processing standard is applied across product types and focuses primarily on ingredients used
-12 Biodynamic® processing standards, developed for specific product types, require minimal manipulation so that the agricultural ingredients used define the product
What are the top three U.S. states in terms of wine consumption?
CA, NY, FL
What percentage of legal-aged Americans contacted in a Nielson phone survey drink wine?
What percentage of restaurant wine sales do red wines represent?
What is the average cost of the grapes used to produce a $20 bottle of wine?
The leading exporters of wine to the US are:
Italy (24%), Australia (17%), Argentina (14%), Chile (14%), France (9%)
What is California's share of the US wine market?
What the two largest export markets for California wine?
EU (40%) and Canada (30%)
What percent of California wine is exported outside the US?
17% (up from 12% in 2000)
80% of wines sold in the US cost less than what price?
What is primary red grape in Anderson Valley?
Where and when were grape vines first planted in California?
Mission San Diego de Alcala in 1769 (supervised by Padre Junipero Serra, to be canonized in 2015 by Pope Francis)
What country in the world consumes the most wine in total?
USA (may soon be surpassed by China), however, USA is only 38th in the world in per capita consumption. Top world rankings for per-capita wine consumption are 1) Vatican City, 2) Andorra, 3) France.
When was the UC Davis department of viticulture and enology established?
1935, shortly after prohibition
What are the most common WHITE grapes grown in Mendocino County?
Chardonnay, Saugvignon Blanc, Gewurtztraminer
What are the most common RED grapes grown in Mendocino County?
Cabernet Sauvignon(!), Pinot Noir, Zinfandel
What percent of California's organic wine grape acreage is grown in Mendocino County?
What is the most significant AVA in Mendocino County?
Anderson Valley AVA
Which highway runs through Anderson Valley? Which river?
Hwy 128, Navarro River
What two cities border the Anderson Valley?
Navarro and Boonville
What is the diurnal shift in Anderson Valley?
large, 40-50 degrees
What is the "deep" end of Anderson Valley?
Name 4 AVA's in Mendocino County that are east of Hwy 101.
Covelos, Dos Rios, Potter Valley, Redwood Valley
What were the first 3 AVA's in Mendocino County in 1983?
Anderson Valley AVA, Cole Ranch AVA, Potter Valley AVA
What are the predominant varietal in McDowell Valley AVA? It is located in which county?
Rhone red and whites; Mendocino County.
What is the defining charateristic of Mendocino Ridge?
Elevation above 1200 feet
Which highway runs through Yorkville Highlands AVA?
When was the creation of the AVA rules?
What does a varietal designation on the label mean in terms of the origin of the wine?
A varietal designation on the label requires an appellation of origin and means that at least 75% of the grapes used to make the wine are of that variety and that the entire 75% were grown in the labeled appellation.