Cairdiovascular System: Blood Vessels Flashcards Preview

Phar 112 Lec 1st Exam > Cairdiovascular System: Blood Vessels > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cairdiovascular System: Blood Vessels Deck (79):
1

Types of Blood vessels

Arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Venules
Veins

2

Parts of a Blood vessel

Lumen
Tunica intima/interna
Tunica media
Tunica externa/adventitia

3

Hollow center through which blood flows

Lumen

4

Decreases friction as blood flows through the lumen

Tunica interna

5

Subparts of the Tunica intima

Endothelium - assistance with capillary permeability
Basement membrane - physical support
Internal elastic lamina - facilitates diffusion

6

Components of tunica media

Smooth muscle cells
Elastic fibers

7

Components of tunica externa

Elastic and collagen fibers

8

Small vessels that supply blood to the tissues of the vessel
"Vessel of the vessels"

Vasa vasorum

9

Arteries have high _______ which means their walls stretch easily without tearing in response to pressure

Compliance

10

Types of arteries

Elastic - conducting
Muscular - distributing
Arterioles - resistance vessel

11

Largest
Helps propel blood onward while ventricles are relaxing
Sometimes momentarily store mechanical energy functioning as PRESSURE RESERVOIR

Elastic arteries

12

More smooth muscles, less elastic
Capable of greater vasoconstriction/dilation

Muscular arteries

13

Ability to contract and maintain partial contraction

Vascular tone

14

Union of the branches of 2 or more arteries supplying the same body region

Anastomosis

15

Alternative route of blood flow to a body part through anastomosis
Can occur between veins, arteries, and venules

Collateral circulation

16

Regulates resistance
Has thin tunica media

Arterioles

17

Opposition to blood flow due to friction between blood and the walls of blood vessels

Resistance

18

Terminal end of arteriole, tapers toward capillary junction

Metarteriole

19

Distal most muscle cells in the metarteriole-capillary junction

Precapillary spinchter

20

Smallest
NO tunica media and externa

Capillaries

21

Parts of the capillaries

Lumen
Endothelium
Basement membrane

22

Flow of blood from a metarteriole through capillaries and into a post capillary venule

Microcirculation

23

Venule that receives blood from a capillary

Postcapillary venule

24

Forms extensive branching networks that increases SA available for rapid exchange of materials bet blood and IF

Capillary bed

25

Arterioles: resistance vessels
Capillaries: ___________

Exchange vessels

26

Types of capillaries

Continuous
Fenestrated
Sinusoids

27

Collect blood from capillaries and drain into veins

Venules

28

Thin folds of tunica interna that form flaplike cusps

Valves

29

Valves aid in

VENOUS RETURN

30

Vein with thin endothelial wall without smoot muscle to alter its diameter

Vascular sinus

31

This is due to leaky, weak, and damaged VENOUS VALVES which leads to venous insufficiency

Varicose veins

32

Swollen vein

Varix

33

Varicose veins are most common in

Esophagus
Superficial veins of the lower limbs

34

Smaller than varicose veins

Spider veins

35

Movement of substances bet blood plasma and IF

Capillary exchange

36

3 basic mechanisms of capillary exchange

Diffusion
Transcytosis (vesicular transport)
Bulk flow

37

For large lipid insoluble molec that cannot cross the capillary walls like insulin and antibodies

Transcytosis

38

2 mechanisms of bulk flow

Filtration
Reabsorption

39

Pressure-driven movement of fluid and solutes FROM BLOOD CAPILLARIES TO IF

Filtration

40

Pressures that drive filtration

Blood hydrostatic pressure
Interstitial fluid osmotic pressure

41

Pressure-driven movement of fluid and solutes FROM IF INTO BLOOD CAPILLARIES

Reabsorption

42

Pressure that drives reabsorption

Blood colloid osmotic pressure

43

States that the volume of fluid and solutes reabsorbed normally is almost as large as the volume filtered

Starling's Law of Capillaries

44

ARTERIAL END: ___________ - FILTRATION
VENOUS END: ___________ - REABSORPTION

Net outward pressure
Net inward pressure

45

Refers to all vascular resistances offered by systemic blood vessels

Resistance

46

Factors affecting resistance

Size of the lumen - inversely proportional
Blood viscosity - direct
Total blood vessel length - direct

47

Velocity is ___________ related to cross-sectional area of a vessel

Inversely

48

BP REGULATION

Hormonal regulation
Neural regulation
Autoregulation

49

Normonal BP Regulation

RAAS - renin angiotensin aldosterone system
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
ADP - anti diuretic hormone
ANP - atrial natriuretic peptide

50

Released in the adrenal medulla

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

51

Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Cause ______________ in the arterioles and veins in the skin and abdominal organs
Cause ______________ in the arterioles of cardiac and smooth muscles

Vasoconstriction
Vasodilation

52

Antidiuretic hormone is
Produced in the ______________
Released in the ______________

Hypothalamus
Posterior pituitary

53

Actions of antidiuretic hormones

Vasoconstriction
Enhance water absorption by the kidneys

54

Released by the cells in the atria

Atrial natriuretic peptide

55

Actions of ANP

Vasodilation by promoting loss of salt and water in the urine

56

Neural regulation

Baroreceptors
Chemoreceptors

57

Pressure sensitive sensory receptors

Baroreceptors

58

Baroreceptor reflexes

Aortic reflex
Carotid sinus reflex

59

Governs the general sympathetic BP

Aortic reflex

60

Nerve used in aortic reflex

Vagus nerve - X

61

Helps maintain normal BP in the brain

Carotid sinus reflex

62

Nerves used in the carotid sinus reflex

Glossopharyngeal nerves - IX

63

Sensory receptors that monitor the chemical composition of the blood

Chemoreceptor reflexes

64

The ability of a tissue to automatically adjust its blood flow to match its metabolic demands.

Autoregulation of BP

65

Vasodilating substances

K+ H+
Lactic acid
Adenosine
Nitric oxide
Kinin, histamine

66

Vasoconstricting substances

TXA2
Superoxide radicals
Serotonin from platelets
Endothelins

67

Failure of CVS to deliver enough O2 and nutrients to meet cellular metabolic needs

Shock

68

Inadequate blood flow to body tissues may lead to

Decreased blood volume
Decreased blood pressure

69

Cells switch for ________ to
__________ production of ATP
__________ accumulates in body fluids

Aerobic
Anaerobic
Lactic acid

70

Types of shock

Hypovolemic
Cardiogenic
Vascular
Obstructive

71

Types of Vascular shock

Anaphylactic
Neurogenic
Septic

72

Due to decreased blood volume

Hypovolemic

73

Due to poor heart function

Cardiogenic

74

Due to inappropriate vasodilation

Vascular

75

Due to obstruction of blood flow

Obstructive

76

Insect bites

Anaphylactic

77

Trauma in the head

Neurogenic

78

Bacterial toxins

Septic

79

Homeostatic responses to shock

Activation of RAAS system
Secretion of ADH
Activation of sympathetic ANH