Flashcards in Cancer Deck (35):
How is cyclophosphamide activated?
Metabolized in the liver to active (prodrug)
What are the side effects of Cyclophoshamide?
Myelosuppression Common and well as STERILE HEMORRHAGIC CYSTITIS.
What is Chlorambucil used for?
Immunosuppressant and tx of chronic lymphocytic leukemia
How is melphalan excreted?
eliminated by plasma hydrolysis.
What is Melphalan used for?
Treatment of multiple myeloma
What is Lomustine used for?
CNS neoplasms (wide distribution)
What are the adverse effects of Lomustine?
myelosuppression, thrombocytopenia, chronic hepatotoxicity (but this is reversible)
What are the 2 platinum compounds that we know.
Cisplatin and Carboplatin
How do Platinum compounds work?
bind to DNA residues and cause cross-linking which prevent replication
What platinum compound can you NOT use in cats?
causes fatal pulmonary toxicosis.
What are the two ways that Cisplatin is administered?
1. preceded and followed by saline to reduce accumulation and nephrotoxicity
2. biodegradable impregnated implants to provide slow release and minimize systemic effects
What is Carboplatin used for?
It is the Cisplatin for cats.
What type of drug is doxorubicin?
How does Doxorubicin work?
interrupts normal cell unwinding of DNA but non cell-cycle specific.
What neoplasms are treated with doxorubicin?
Lymphoma, carcinomas, and osteosarcoma.
How often is Doxorubicin given?
every 2-3 weeks
Possible adverse effects of Doxorubicin?
Myelosuppression, GI side effects, and a chronic irreversible dose-dependent cardiomyopathy in certain big breeds of dogs.
*cats may exhibit nephropathy
What type of drug is Vincristine? How does it work?
binds to tubulin on the mitotic spindle and prevents cell division during metaphase of mitosis
What neoplasms are treated with Vincristine?
lymphoreticular neoplasms, carcinomas, sarcomas, and TVT
What are two antimetabolites that we know.
Methotrexate and Cytosine arabinoside.
How do antimetabolites work?
Impair DNA synthesis during S-phase of cell cycle
What is methotrexate used for?
some neoplasms and immunosuppresion
*check for drug drug interxns
What is cytosine arabinoside used for?
lymphoreticular neoplasms *good distribution to CNS
as well as granulomatous meningoencephalitis (GME)
What type of drug is Toceranib?
Tyrosine kinase inhibitor
How does Toceranib work?
Targets and inhibits tyrosine kinase growth factor (KIT) interfering with mast cell proliferation and most effective in G1 phase.
What does Toceranib treat?
grade 2 or 3 mast cell tumors
How does L-Asparaginase work?
hydrolyzes L-asparagine to inhibit protein synthesis in neoplastic cells and taking away the AA they need.
WHat does L-asparaginase treat?
Part of a multidrug protocol for lymphoma
What are the major adverse effects for L-Asparaginase?
Anaphylaxis and pancreatitis.
What vaccine is available in veterinary oncology?
Melanoma vaccine used to treat dogs with oral melanoma.
Ot stimulates an immune response against the melanoma protein tyrosinase
What is Piroxicam used for and how does it work?
NSAIDS (COX2 inhibitors) irreversibly inhibit cyclo-oxygenase and are used in canine carcinomas especially TransitionalCC
What are Biphosphonates used for and how do they work?
They are osteoclast inhibitors that are used to treat bone neoplasms (osteosarcoma, metastatic bone disease, multiple myeloma) and also for the management of hypercalcemia of malignancy
How does prednisone work against cancer?
suppresses mitosis in lymphocytes therefore treats lymphoreticular neoplasias.
What should you be aware of when using prednisone for cancer?
it can 'mask' the cancer, dont use empirically.
Also can induce resistant cancer sells so use in a multidrug chemotherapy protocol.