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2 - BOD > Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Deck (22):
1

Bcl2

Oncogene
Anti-apoptotic protein upregulated in some chromosome translocations (some lymphomas)

2

BCR-ABL

Oncogene
Fused in chronic myeloid leukaemia

3

Beta-catenin

Oncogene
Mutated in a small percentage of colon cancers that don't have APC mutations (interacts with APC)

4

BRAF

Oncogene
Downstream of Ras, mutated in melanomas (activated by other mechanisms including fusion)

5

CyclinD1

Oncogene
Activated by amplification in breast cancer
With CDK4, controls Rb-1

6

ERBB
HER2

Oncogenes
EGFRs (RTKs), HER2 is the target of herceptin

7

ERG

Oncogene, transcription factor
Fusions with TMPRSS2 found in ~50% of prostate cancers

8

MLL

Oncogene
Modifies histones (methyl transferase)
Fused by translocation in leukaemias

9

MYC

Oncogene, transcription factor
Powerful and widely abnormal oncogenes

10

PIK3CA

Oncogene, PI3K subunit
Mutated in 40% of breast cancers

11

Ras

Oncogene, G-proteins in MAPK pathway
Point mutation, KRAS mutated in 50% of colon carcinomas

12

TCF3/4

Oncogenes, downstream of Wnt pathway
Gene fusions occur in colon cancer

13

APC

Tumour suppressor
Interacts with beta-catenin
Inactivated in most colon carcinomas, inherited mutation in hereditary polyposis coli

14

BRCA1

Tumour suppressor
Strong hereditary predisposition to breast cancer
(not related to BRCA2)

15

BRCA2

Tumour suppressor
Strong hereditary predisposition to breast cancer
Component of homologous recombination DNA repair

16

p16

Tumour suppressor
Inhibits CDK4/cyclinD1
Often deleted

17

MLH1/MSH2

Tumour suppressors
Recognition proteins in mismatch repair complex
Mutated in some non-hereditary colon cancers and hereditary colon cancer (HNPCC)
MLH1 frequently deactivated by promoter methylation

18

p53

Tumour suppressor
Halts cell cycle and initiates apoptosis
Mutated in 50% or more cancers

19

PTEN

Tumour suppressor
Phosphatase which antagonises PI3K

20

Rb-1

Tumour suppressor
Nuclear protein which halts the cell cycle at the G1/S checkpoint

21

SMAD4

Tumour suppressor
Downstream effector in TGFβ pathway
Mutated in some colon carcinomas

22

TGFβ

Tumour suppressor
Inhibitory growth factors which regulate cell differentiation