Flashcards in Cancer Deck (17)
Swelling, originally for inflammation
uncontroled cell growth
abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which is virtually autonomous and exceeds that of normal tissues. The growth is uncoordinated and persists after the cessation of the stimuli that initiated the change
Name two basic components of a tumour?
Parenchyma- Proliferating neoplasmic cells
Name some features of an Benign tumour?
-Usually slow growing
-Rarely invade locally-cohesive,expansile,encapsulated mass
Name some features of a malignant tumour?
-Anaplasia-Complete lack of fifferentiation
-Rapid turnover- "chemo targets"
-metastasize (except 2 tumours)
List types of cancers caused by environmental agents?
Stomach cancer higher (approx 7 times) in Japan compared with USA. Colon cancer much less in Japan
Melanoma much higher in NZ and Australia compared with Scandinavia.
HCC more common in Uganda- aflatoxin
High incidence of oesophageal cancer in China and Iran- nitrates in soil, abrasives in diet
List sime environamental agents that can cause cancer?
Occupational agents like asbestos, naphthyl amine and vinyl chloride, alcohol (liver cancers), smoking (lung, bladder cancer
List examples of cancers caused by infection?
Heppatitis C- Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Helicobacter pylori-gastric carcinoma
Name some factors that distinguish benign and malignant tumours?
-Differentiation and anaplasia
-rate of growth
identfy the principles for cancer screening?
Reliable prediction of tumourbehaviour
Target population has enough people at risk to justify expense
Cost-effective and reliable screening tool
List the features of pathology which predict the prognosis in cancer?
Size of primary lesion
Spread to regional lymoh nodes
Presence of metastases
Name the main staging sytsem used in cancers?
-Size of Primary Lesion(T1-T4)
-Spread to Regional lymph nodes(N0,N1-N3)
-presence of metastases(M0,M1-M2)
Name the three catagories of carcinogens?
Name a cancer associated with ionising electromagnetic radiation?
luekemia and solid tumours
Name features of Grading of cancer?
-high grade, low grade
-Based on the degree of differentiation and on the number of mitoses
-less useful than staging