Flashcards in Cancer Deck (23):
What is a neoplasm?
An abnormal growth of cells which persist after the initial stimulus is removed
What are some intrinsic and extrinsic factors of cancer?
Intrinsic - age, gender, hereditary
Extrinsic - high BMI, low fruit and vegetable intake, lack of physical activity, use of tobacco, alcohol intake
What can be done to find out whether a carcinogen is an initiator or promoter?
The ames test
Why is HPV considered a direct carcinogen?
It expresses E6 and E7 proteins which inhibit p53 and pRB (proteins important in cell proliferation) function respectively
What are some examples of indirect carcinogens?
Hepatitis B and C
What are the 6 characteristics of a malignant neoplasm?
Self-sufficiency in growth signals
Resistance to growth stop signals
Sustained ability for angiogenesis
Resistance to apoptosis
Ability to invade and produce metastases
What is a tumour?
Any clinically detectable lump or swelling
What is a dysplasia?
A pre-neoplastic alteration in which cells show disordered tissue organisation
What is the suffix given to benign neoplasms?
Eg. Adenoma, papilloma
What is the suffix given to malignant epithelial neoplasms?
What is the suffix given to malignant stromal neoplasms?
What are some characteristics of benign neoplasms?
Typically well defined
Microscopically resemble the tissue of origin
Have no spread
Can become malignant
What are the 3 routes of metastatic spread? How do carcinomas and sarcomas typically spread?
Blood - sarcomas typical route
Lymphatic system - carcinomas typical route
Which type of neoplasms typically spread to bone?
What are the common sites for blood borne metastasis?
What are the systemic effects of primary and secondary neoplasms?
Parasitic effect on the host
Production of hormones
What factors need to be considered when predicting the chance of survival of someone with cancer?
General health status
Location of tumour
Type of tumour
Availability of treatments
What is a resection specimen?
A large tissue which is taken surgically with a curative intent
What is the grading of a tumour and what are the levels?
A measure of how much the tumour resembles its parent tissue (degree of differentiation)
G1 - well differentiated
G2 - moderately differentiated
G3 - poorly differentiated
What is the staging of a tumour and what are the different levels?
A measure of how far the tumour has spread
T1 - least spread
T4 - most spread
What are the options when it comes to treatment of cancer?
What are some examples of tumour markers?
CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), hCG, AFP (alpha fetoprotein), Ca 125