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Flashcards in Cancer Deck (23):
1

What is a neoplasm?

An abnormal growth of cells which persist after the initial stimulus is removed

2

What are some intrinsic and extrinsic factors of cancer?

Intrinsic - age, gender, hereditary

Extrinsic - high BMI, low fruit and vegetable intake, lack of physical activity, use of tobacco, alcohol intake

3

What can be done to find out whether a carcinogen is an initiator or promoter?

The ames test

4

Why is HPV considered a direct carcinogen?

It expresses E6 and E7 proteins which inhibit p53 and pRB (proteins important in cell proliferation) function respectively

5

What are some examples of indirect carcinogens?

Hepatitis B and C
HIV
EBV

6

What are the 6 characteristics of a malignant neoplasm?

Self-sufficiency in growth signals
Resistance to growth stop signals
Cell immortalisation
Sustained ability for angiogenesis
Resistance to apoptosis
Ability to invade and produce metastases

7

What is a tumour?

Any clinically detectable lump or swelling

8

What is a dysplasia?

A pre-neoplastic alteration in which cells show disordered tissue organisation

9

What is the suffix given to benign neoplasms?

-oma
Eg. Adenoma, papilloma

10

What is the suffix given to malignant epithelial neoplasms?

-Carcinoma

11

What is the suffix given to malignant stromal neoplasms?

-sarcoma

12

What are some characteristics of benign neoplasms?

Typically well defined
Microscopically resemble the tissue of origin
Have no spread
Can become malignant

13

What are the 3 routes of metastatic spread? How do carcinomas and sarcomas typically spread?

Blood - sarcomas typical route
Lymphatic system - carcinomas typical route
Transcoelomic

14

Which type of neoplasms typically spread to bone?

Breast
Bronchus
Kidney
Thyroid
Prostate

15

What are the common sites for blood borne metastasis?

Liver

Lungs

16

What are the systemic effects of primary and secondary neoplasms?

Parasitic effect on the host
Production of hormones
Neuropathies
Skin problems

17

What factors need to be considered when predicting the chance of survival of someone with cancer?

Age
General health status
Location of tumour
Type of tumour
Grade
Stage
Availability of treatments

18

What is a resection specimen?

A large tissue which is taken surgically with a curative intent

19

What is the grading of a tumour and what are the levels?

A measure of how much the tumour resembles its parent tissue (degree of differentiation)

G1 - well differentiated
G2 - moderately differentiated
G3 - poorly differentiated

20

What is the staging of a tumour and what are the different levels?

A measure of how far the tumour has spread

T1 - least spread
T2
T3
T4 - most spread

21

What are the options when it comes to treatment of cancer?

Surgery
Radiotherapy
Chemotherapy
Hormonal therapy
Molecular treatment

22

What are some examples of tumour markers?

CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), hCG, AFP (alpha fetoprotein), Ca 125

23

Which cancer screening programs are available in the U.K.?

Cervical
Breast
Bowel
Bowel scope