cancer biology (carcinogens) Flashcards Preview

MCBL > cancer biology (carcinogens) > Flashcards

Flashcards in cancer biology (carcinogens) Deck (21):
1

What are clonal cells?

originating from one cell

2

Are all cancer cells clonal?

yes
but there can be subpopulations caused by more mutations

3

What are carcinogenesis?

cause of cancer formation
includes events leading to cancer formation

4

What is progression?

mutations made after tumor event dancer has formed

5

What is the typical tumor doubling time for breast cancer?

100 days

6

What are carcinogenesis usually studied in?

animal models

7

What was the first identification of carcinogens?

chemicals in 1700
high scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps
this led to animals to test chemicals

8

What was the ames test?

using bacteria to test for mutagenic abilities
doesn't mean mutagen is carcinogenic, it cause mutations

9

describe the ames test?

1) grind up liver
2)solution (growth factors)
3)plate (no growth) control

1) steps above but mix with possible mutagen. if growth then it causes mutations

10

Why is the liver used in the ames test?

because some chemicals need to be activated in the liver

11

What are the two stages of cancer cell formation?

initiation- mutation in DNA
promotion- mutated cells divide

12

What are some initiators?

Chemicals
physical agents
viruses-oncongenes

13

What are the five scenarios to cancer or no cancer formation?

1) initiator then promoter- cancer
2) initiator then promoter after longer time - cancer
3)initiator promotor spread out - no cancer
4) promoter first then initiator - no cancer
5)initiator one after another n promoter - cancer

14

Why is there no cancer in when the promoter is spread over a period of time?

it gives time for repair mechanisms to work between promoters

15

When does tumors does angiogensis?

~1mm in size

16

What plays a role in cancer formation?

genetics
environment

17

initiation/promotion can depend on what?

developmental stage of cell and cell of origin
ex. is it still dividing
ex. some carcinogens don't cause cancer in some types

18

What do cells need to get multiple mutation?

Cancer cells undergo multiple mutations
they need a promoter to constantly force mutations

19

What is de-differentiation?

when a cancer cell goes backwards more towards a progenitor cell

20

Why are dedifferentiated cells a bad prognosis?

because you need a large number of mutations for that to happen

21

What happens to cancer cells as they undergo multiple mutations and continue to grow?

they can become autonomous

Decks in MCBL Class (70):