cancer biology (gain/loss of function) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in cancer biology (gain/loss of function) Deck (22):
1

What are oncongenes?

regulatory genes that control cell division and growth

2

What can oncogenes do to form cancer?

can increase growth - produce growth factors
decrease growth factor requirements -increase growth factor receptors

3

What is Ras?

gene that can transfect cells with Ras and see tumor development
Ras mutation is found in 25% of human tumors

4

What can be done to oncogene that can result in cancer formation?

move it next to a strong promoter

5

How is burkitts B cell lymphoma produced?

Moving the myc ocongene next to the B cell (immunoglobulin) promoter. this turns on the gene to a;ways produce b cells

6

What are oncogenes that control cell death if the cell is abnormally growing?

tumor suppressor genes

7

What happens if a a tumor suppressor gene is lost?

could lead to tumor development

8

What is the function of tumor suppressor genes?

normal genes that monitor any cell and if any DNA damage the cell goes to apoptosis.
just don't monitor tumor cells

9

What is p53?

a tumor suppressor gene

10

How many human tumors lack the p53 function?

~50% of human tumors have p53 that is mutated

11

Which residues are mostly mutated in p53?

the parts that come in contact with DNA

12

Why are cancers more prevalent in the elderly?

1) more carcinogen exposure
2)decreased immune activity
3) age associated changes (hormone changes)
4) greater chance of multiple mutations

13

How many genetic changes does colon cancer need before cancer develops?

3-6 genetic changes

14

What are the function of natural killer cells?

they monitor abnormal cells
NKC does not work as well in the elderly

15

What is the APC gene?

it is a tumor suppressor gene

16

What is a mutation in the APC gene lead to?

doesn't monitor cells in colon
polyp formation in the colon
the earlier in life APC mutation the higher chance of developing colon cancer earlier in life

17

What are lose of function mutation?

loss of the function of a gene leads to cancer
ex: tumor suppressor genes lead to uncontrolled growth

18

What are gain of function mutation?

when a gene mutation heads to a gain of function leads to uncontrolled growth
ex: oncognes that produce growth regulators

19

is cancer caused by a single mutation?

no
it takes multiple mutations to cause cancer

20

What are the multiple mutations that effect TSGs/oncogenes are due to?

Carcinogens (chemical agents, UV radiation)
viruses
inherited mutation that affect TSGs

21

How many mutations is needed to produce cancer cells in a gain of function mutation?

only one allele needs to be mutated to show some overactivity. this happens in oncogenes that code for growth factors

22

how many mutations is needed in in lose of function?

typically two mutations is needed because if one allele is mutated then one still will show some activity.
usually in TSGs

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