Flashcards in cancer biology (genetic basis of select human cancers) Deck (14):
What are genes that play a role in colon cancer development?
MSH1 and 2 (TSG)
What are the roles of APC and N-cam?
cell adhesion and cell signaling
loss of these allows cell to become autonomous
What are the roles of MSH1 and 2?
DNA repair (mismatch repair)
TSGs loss of functions leads to more mutations
What is the role of K-ras?
oncogene if mutated leads to more cell division
What is the role of p53?
regulates cell division
stops cell division if there is DNA damage until repaired, if not apoptosis
no proofreading if function is lost
What are the signals that are detected by p53 to signal abnormal cells?
1) hyperproliferative signals
2) DNA damage
3) telomere shortening
What is the result if a p53 TSG is activated?
What is the usually the first step in the formation of colon cancer?
lose of APC
What is the Retinoblastoma gene?
TSG that blocks cell division
does it take a lot of mutations to develop retinoblastoma?
no, unlike colon cancer it only takes a few mutations to have cancer formation
especially in individuals with one mutated allele.
a spontaneous mutation in the normal allele usually happens leading to retinoblastoma
can see ~ 2 years old
What does retinoblastoma have?
genetic instability- one mutation increases the likelihood of another mutation
reduces protein production by half leads to mutation in the normal gene
found in TSGs
What causes Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)?
part of chromosome 22 is translocated to chromosome 9
abl (oncogene on 9) under control of bcr (oncogene on 22)
What is the result of CML and ALL?
hyper responsiveness to growth factors - that results higher replication of cells