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Flashcards in cancer final Deck (66):
1

what is a mitotic body?

they are the dividing cells in a tissue

2

what do mitotic bodies tell you about cancer?

if there are more mitotic bodies than their should be for specific tissue then you would know tissue was dividing more rapidly and suspect cancer

3

where do sarcomas arise

muscles and connective tissue

4

how do sarcomas spread

blood stream

5

where do carcinomas arise?

epithelium

6

how do carcinomas spread?

lymphatic system

7

what is an adenocarcinoma?

glandular cancer

8

what cells are most sensitive to ionizing radiation?

cells in mitosis or the G2 phase, the are replicating their genome

9

does oma mean the cancer or not?

OMA means swelling or tumor, it doesn't indicate cancer one way or the other.

10

Ames test

detects mutagenic effect on DNA, doesn't show epigenetic changes

11

what cancer kills most males?

hepatocellular carcinoma

12

what cancer kills most females?

cervical cancer

13

when does cancer peak in first world?

80-84 years

14

MEN I

pitutary adenoma, parathyroid hyperplasia and pancreatic tumors.

15

MEN II

parathyroid hyperplasia, phenochromocytoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma.

16

MEN IIB

mucosal neuromas, marfinaoid body habitis, pheochromocytoma, meullary thyroid carcinoma,

17

what does MEN stand for?

multiple endocrine neoplasia, a familiar cancer syndrome

18

paraneoplastic syndrome

may serve as signal for neoplastic diagnosis, when neoplasm is causing a change but its something that isn't directly related to tumor growth, like suddenly you are super tired all the time, it may be hormonal

19

preneoplastic disorders

Acquired (hep B) - increase liklyhood of reaching a cancerous stage and corelate directly with cancer, HepB,

20

direct acting Initiatior is what?

direct acting chemical carcinogens that modify DNA to cause cancer,

21

Indirect initiatior is what?

chemical carcinogen gets altered by our body to become an active carcinogen

22

genotoxic mechanisms

employ DNA damage, chromosomal misentegration

23

non-genotoxic mechanisnm

Employ chronic irrication, cell death ROS , epigenetic to cause problems.

24

what does a person look for to find promoter region?

Promoter region alterations, these alterations have been found in all cancers that have been studies.

25

what type of solar radiation is most carcinogenic?

UVB

26

how does UVB cause cancer

produces dyrimidine dimers in DNA leading to transcritional errors and mutations of proto-oncogenes and tumor supressor genes.

27

what type of radaions used in hospital

ioniing ratiation

28

what is neutron radiation not used?

because governments have outlawed it because they don't want it used against them.

29

what are the three activities are protoonca genes involved in?

growth, cellular differentiation, gene regulation

30

gain of function

oncogenes, one hit process, create more active protein to stimulate cell cycle

31

loss of function

tumor supressors, two hit process, creates no active proteins , inhibits cell cycle

32

how do viruses cause cancer or tumors

by carrying in oncogenes or by incerting into a tumor supressor gene and breaking it.

33

why may two of the same cancers at same stage in two people progress different?

because at each cell divisions, mutations make each cancer different. They may have starteted the same but will continue to be even more different. So one may be hormone sensitive but the other wont

34

7 thing to make tumor be malignant

self sufficent, insufficient inhibitory signals, evade apoptosis, limitless replication, sustained angiogensis, ability to invade, and defects in DNA repair

35

what is the guardian of the genome?

P53

36

where does P53 work?

prevents cell with damaged DNA from entering the S phase.

37

Li-fraumeni syndrome?

germ line rotation of p53, it increases rates of tumors, childhood sarcomas leukemia, breast cancer

38

what two genes regulate apoptosis?

P53 promotes apoptosis and BCL-2 inhibits apoptosis

39

what is the limit of fine needle aspiration?

Does grading (histology) well, it cant determine staging (size, metastisist)it will show that there are cell changes but cant tell if its moved, can't determine stage

40

what is an abnormal vein growth

non fractal growth pattern, it looks evil and twisted.

41

name two nonoclonal antibodies?

CA-125 and CA 19-9

42

CA-125 non clonal antibody for what?

ovarian cancer

43

CA-19-9 non clonal antibody for what

pancreatic cancer

44

BRCA -1

brest cancer

45

tumor grading

more histological and not prognosis indicatior

46

tumor staging

T is size, N is lympnode spread, M is mestatic.

47

TNM is what?

degree of size, lymNode and metastasis, indicator of prognosis

48

grade 4 cancer means?

glands are fuses, no intervening stroma

49

Stage 4 cancer means

metastasis - spreading, poor prognosis

50

Genetic instability in tumor supression

malignant cells are more prone to mutate and accumulate additional defects without dying.

51

what does genetic instability mean for cancer reoccurance

there was a selective growth advantage for the new cancer, so will more resistance to treatment etc.

52

seeding

spread within the same cavity/chamber

53

transplantation

no clean margins, surgical insision could spread by indroducing cell toblood

54

sister mary joseph

discovered periumbical nodes correlated to pancreatic cancer

55

what three cancers like to move to brain

skin, breast and lung

56

what threee cancers like to move to bone

breast lung and prostate then kidney and thyroid

57

what causes osteoblastic lesions

prostate cancer - builds bumps on bone

58

What causes osteolytic lesions

renal and breast cancers - thins out bone

59

how could you test for metastasis to spine?

tuning fork

60

Induction treatment

only treatment, used for advanced disease or when no other treatment exhists

61

Neoadjuvant

chemo first, followed by another treatment

62

adjuvant

combination with other modality, given after other treatments are used.

63

salvage

hail mary, for those that fail to respond to initial chemo

64

what tumors are more sensitive to XRT (radiosensitive)

seminomas and lymphomas - because their cells have high turnover

65

what tumor cells are radio resistane

epithelial and carcomas, because they have a lower cell turnover

66

NCCN?

national comprehensive cancer network, shows staging and therapies for it.