Flashcards in cancer final Deck (66):
what is a mitotic body?
they are the dividing cells in a tissue
what do mitotic bodies tell you about cancer?
if there are more mitotic bodies than their should be for specific tissue then you would know tissue was dividing more rapidly and suspect cancer
where do sarcomas arise
muscles and connective tissue
how do sarcomas spread
where do carcinomas arise?
how do carcinomas spread?
what is an adenocarcinoma?
what cells are most sensitive to ionizing radiation?
cells in mitosis or the G2 phase, the are replicating their genome
does oma mean the cancer or not?
OMA means swelling or tumor, it doesn't indicate cancer one way or the other.
detects mutagenic effect on DNA, doesn't show epigenetic changes
what cancer kills most males?
what cancer kills most females?
when does cancer peak in first world?
pitutary adenoma, parathyroid hyperplasia and pancreatic tumors.
parathyroid hyperplasia, phenochromocytoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma.
mucosal neuromas, marfinaoid body habitis, pheochromocytoma, meullary thyroid carcinoma,
what does MEN stand for?
multiple endocrine neoplasia, a familiar cancer syndrome
may serve as signal for neoplastic diagnosis, when neoplasm is causing a change but its something that isn't directly related to tumor growth, like suddenly you are super tired all the time, it may be hormonal
Acquired (hep B) - increase liklyhood of reaching a cancerous stage and corelate directly with cancer, HepB,
direct acting Initiatior is what?
direct acting chemical carcinogens that modify DNA to cause cancer,
Indirect initiatior is what?
chemical carcinogen gets altered by our body to become an active carcinogen
employ DNA damage, chromosomal misentegration
Employ chronic irrication, cell death ROS , epigenetic to cause problems.
what does a person look for to find promoter region?
Promoter region alterations, these alterations have been found in all cancers that have been studies.
what type of solar radiation is most carcinogenic?
how does UVB cause cancer
produces dyrimidine dimers in DNA leading to transcritional errors and mutations of proto-oncogenes and tumor supressor genes.
what type of radaions used in hospital
what is neutron radiation not used?
because governments have outlawed it because they don't want it used against them.
what are the three activities are protoonca genes involved in?
growth, cellular differentiation, gene regulation
gain of function
oncogenes, one hit process, create more active protein to stimulate cell cycle
loss of function
tumor supressors, two hit process, creates no active proteins , inhibits cell cycle
how do viruses cause cancer or tumors
by carrying in oncogenes or by incerting into a tumor supressor gene and breaking it.
why may two of the same cancers at same stage in two people progress different?
because at each cell divisions, mutations make each cancer different. They may have starteted the same but will continue to be even more different. So one may be hormone sensitive but the other wont
7 thing to make tumor be malignant
self sufficent, insufficient inhibitory signals, evade apoptosis, limitless replication, sustained angiogensis, ability to invade, and defects in DNA repair
what is the guardian of the genome?
where does P53 work?
prevents cell with damaged DNA from entering the S phase.
germ line rotation of p53, it increases rates of tumors, childhood sarcomas leukemia, breast cancer
what two genes regulate apoptosis?
P53 promotes apoptosis and BCL-2 inhibits apoptosis
what is the limit of fine needle aspiration?
Does grading (histology) well, it cant determine staging (size, metastisist)it will show that there are cell changes but cant tell if its moved, can't determine stage
what is an abnormal vein growth
non fractal growth pattern, it looks evil and twisted.
name two nonoclonal antibodies?
CA-125 and CA 19-9
CA-125 non clonal antibody for what?
CA-19-9 non clonal antibody for what
more histological and not prognosis indicatior
T is size, N is lympnode spread, M is mestatic.
TNM is what?
degree of size, lymNode and metastasis, indicator of prognosis
grade 4 cancer means?
glands are fuses, no intervening stroma
Stage 4 cancer means
metastasis - spreading, poor prognosis
Genetic instability in tumor supression
malignant cells are more prone to mutate and accumulate additional defects without dying.
what does genetic instability mean for cancer reoccurance
there was a selective growth advantage for the new cancer, so will more resistance to treatment etc.
spread within the same cavity/chamber
no clean margins, surgical insision could spread by indroducing cell toblood
sister mary joseph
discovered periumbical nodes correlated to pancreatic cancer
what three cancers like to move to brain
skin, breast and lung
what threee cancers like to move to bone
breast lung and prostate then kidney and thyroid
what causes osteoblastic lesions
prostate cancer - builds bumps on bone
What causes osteolytic lesions
renal and breast cancers - thins out bone
how could you test for metastasis to spine?
only treatment, used for advanced disease or when no other treatment exhists
chemo first, followed by another treatment
combination with other modality, given after other treatments are used.
hail mary, for those that fail to respond to initial chemo
what tumors are more sensitive to XRT (radiosensitive)
seminomas and lymphomas - because their cells have high turnover
what tumor cells are radio resistane
epithelial and carcomas, because they have a lower cell turnover