Flashcards in Cancer, O9 Part II - Types of cancer treatment EXAM 2 Deck (27):
Name the four types of cancer.
What is a carcinoma?
cancer that occurs in the cells that line the surface of the body (e.g., digestive tract, laryngeal cancer...)
What type of cancer does laryngeal cancer typically begin as?
squamous cell carcinoma
What is a sarcoma?
A type of cancer that arises in the connective tissues - tendons, muscles, and bones.
What is a lymphoma?
A type of cancer that arises in the lymph nodes
What is leukemia?
A cancer of the blood and the blood-forming systems such as bone marrow
How big does a tumor need to be in order to be detectable?
about 1 gram
How long might it take a tumor to reach 1 gram?
It may take around 4-5 years
True or false: some screening tests, such as mammograms and TSA tests for the prostate, can detect tumors before they reach 1 gram.
TRUE - cellular changes may also be seen on certain types of evaluations.
What is "leukoplakia"?
Cellular chang on the surface of the vocal folds that appears as extra white tissue patches with purplish/reddish edges. It is precancerous.
NOTE: vocal folds are SUPPOSED to be white but without purple/reddish edges!
Cancers of the larynx tend to start superficially and appear as extra white tissue.
Does laryngeal cancer respond to chemotherapy?
No. It is only used as a LAST resort.
What is the goal of radiation?
To kill the rapidly-dividing cancerous cells before it kills the normal cells by saturating the tumor with high amounts of radiation.
What types of non-cancerous cells are also rapidly dividing and thus commonly effected by radiation?
Hair cells, the lining of the digestive system, and blood cells.
What effect does radiation have on tissue, and how does this effect the larynx?
Radiation causes tissue to become stiff, so radiation of the larynx causes it to become stiff. This effects a person's ability to eat, drink, and swallow.
How long does radiation treatment typically last?
5 – 8 weeks
What is the unit of measurement for radiation?
In the 5-8 weeks that a patient typically undergoes radiation treatment, how many gys does he/she receive total?
Between 50-80 gys of ionizing radiation total in the 5-8 weeks of treatment.
What is the maximum dosage of radiation that a person can receive in his or her lifetime?
80 gys. If a person receives any more radiation than this, it is more likely to CAUSE cancer rather than to cure it.
How many gys does it take to cause tissue to break down? What does the tissue breakdown have an effect on?
It takes 70 gys to cause tissue to breakdown. This has a huge effect on healing.
How is radiation typically delivered?
In fractions of gys, 5 days per week.
Name another measurement of radiation.
Rads; 100 rads = 1 gy
What are some other considerations when it comes to radiation?
1. type of tissue and its response.
2. maximum dosage before the tissue breaks down (70 gys)
3. The spine is irradiated when receiving radiation for laryngeal cancer. This can affect lower motor neurons and can result in ipsilateral paresis.
4. Higher occurance of catarracts
5. Can affect blood pressure due to the carotid artery becoming stiff.
(#s 3-5 are not mentioned in books or by medical professionals)
What are some of the general effects of radiation therapy?
• Xerostomia (dry mouth); radiation has affected the mucosal glands.
• Decreased tissue compliance (stiffness)
• Hair loss
• Immune compromised
• Being sick to your stomach
• Speech/esophageal effects
• May even affect electrolarynx speech, but not usually.
If chemotherapy is used as a last resort, what type of chemo drugs are typically used?
Those that inhibit "angiogenesis" - the creation of new blood vesicles.
• Cancer cells are rapidly dividing, so a tumor needs to develop its own blood-supply; these drugs are aimed at stopping the formation of new blood vessels.
What does VEGF stand for and what is it related to?
Vascular endothelial growth factors - related to the chemotherapy drugs used to treat laryngeal cancer patients as a last resort.
How does radiation work?
It works by breaking apart the bonds that hold the atoms and molecules in our bodies together.