CANCER STAGING AND TUMOR TYPES Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CANCER STAGING AND TUMOR TYPES Deck (38):
1

What is staging?

Process of finding out how much cancer is in a person’s body and where it is located

Staging helps with treatment plans and predict a person’s prognosis

2

CANCER STAGING
The stage is based on four main factors?

1. Location of the primary tumor
2. Tumor size and extent of tumors
3. Lymph node involvement
4. Presence or absence of distant metastasis

3

CANCER STAGING
1. Why is staging needed? 3

2. What is looked at when staging cancer? 5

3. How are cancers staged? 5

1.
-Amount of cancer
-Where in the body
-Best treatment

For example, the treatment for an early-stage cancer may be surgery or radiation, while a more advanced-stage cancer may need to be treated with chemotherapy.


2.
-Tumor size
- Location
- Extent of growth
- Lymph nodes
- Spread to distant areas


3.
-Physical exam
-Imaging studies
-Laboratory test
-Pathology reports
-Surgical reports

4

What are the types of staging?
4

1. Clinical staging
-Estimate of the extent of cancer based on results

2. Pathologic staging
-Surgical stage

3. Post-Therapy/Post-Neoadjuvant -Therapy Staging

4. Restaging

5

Cancer staging: The TNM system?

T stands for the primary tumor

N stands for nodes

M stands for metastasis

6

T category gives info about primary tumor: Such as?

1. Size
2. How deep it has grown into the organ it started
3. If it has grown into nearby tissues

7

CANCER STAGING: Describe what the followng mean:

TX?

T0?

Tis?

Numbers after the T (T1-T4)?
3

TX: Means tumor can’t be measured

T0: Means there is no evidence of a primary tumor

Tis: Means that cancer cells are only growing into most superficial layers, without growing into deeper tissues

T (T1-T4):
-Describe the tumor size
-Amount of spread into nearby tissues
-Higher the T number, the larger the tumor and spread to nearby tissue

8

1. N category describes what?

2. NX?

3. N0?

4. Numbers after the N? (1-3)

1. N category describes whether the cancer has spread into the lymph nodes

2. NX: Means the nearby lymph nodes can’t be evaluated

3. N0: Means nearby lymph nodes do not contain cancer

4. Numbers after the N (N1-N3)

9

1. M category describes what?

2. M0?

3. M1?

1. M category tell whether cancer has spread (metastasized) to distant body parts

2. M0: Means that no cancer spread was found

3. M1: Means cancer has spread to distant organs or tissues

10

Stage grouping
Once TNM has been determined, cancer is staged in what?

Describe each stage:
1. I?
2. IV?
3. Stage 0?

Roman numerals I-IV


1. I is least advanced
2. IV is most advanced
-Some will be subdivided with A & B (IIA, IIIB)
3. Stage 0 is carcinoma in situ for most cancers

11

Describe severity of Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III?

Higher numbers indicate more extensive disease: Larger tumor size and/or spread of the cancer beyond the organ in which it first developed to nearby lymph nodes and/or tissues or organs adjacent to the location of the primary tumor

12

Describe severity of stage IV?

Other staging terms? 5

The cancer has spread to distant tissues or organs

Other staging terms:
1. In situ
2. Localized
3. Regional
4. Distant
5. Unknown

13

1. The stage of the cancer is determined only when what?

2. How does the stage change over time?

3. Survival statistics and info on treatment by stage refers to the stage when the cancer was what?

4. “Restaging” is what?


5. A ____ is written before the new stage

1. the cancer is first diagnosed

2. The stage does not change over time

3. first diagnosed

4. Term used to describe doing test to find the extent of the cancer after treatment

5. “r”

14

TUMOR TYPES
8

1. Carcinoma
2. Sarcoma
3. Leukemia
4. Lymphoma
5. Multiple Myeloma
6. Melanoma
7. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
8. Other Types

15

What is the most common type of cancer?

Carcinoma

16

Carcinoma
1. Formed by what?

2. What are the two types?

1. epithelial cell
-Cells that cover the inside and outside surfaces of the body

2.
-Adenocarcinoma
-Basal Cell
-Squamous cell
-Transitional cell

17

What are the following types of carcinomas:
1. Adenocarcinoma
2. Basal Cell
3. Squamous cell
4. Transitional cell

1. Cancer that produce fluids or mucus

2. Cancer that begins in base layer of epidermis


3. Are epithelial cells that lie just beneath the outer surface of the skin
-Also line the stomach, intestines, lungs, bladder and kidneys

4. Are epithelial cells called transitional epithelium or urothelium
-Tissue made of many layers of epithelial cells that get bigger and smaller


18

What is a sarcoma?

Cancers that form in bone and soft tissue

19

1. What is the most common cancer of the bone?

2. Most common soft tissue cancer? 3

1. Osteosarcoma

2.
-Leiomyosarcoma
-Kaposi sarcoma
-Malignant fibrous histiocytoma

20

What is leukemia?

4 common types?

Cancers that begin in the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow

4 common types
1. Acute lymphoblastic
2. Acute myeloid
3. Chronic lymphoblastic
4. Chronic myeloid

21

1. What is lymphoma?

2. 2 main types?

Lymphoma
1. Cancer that begins in lymphocytes (T cells or B cells)

2. 2 main types
-Hodgkin lymphoma
-Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

22

Where does multiple myloma originate?

Multiple Myeloma
Cancer that begins in plasma cells

23

Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
1. What are these tumors named after?

2. What tumor types are in the other category? 3

1. Named based on type of cell they formed and where tumor first formed in the CNS

2. Other Types
-Germ cell tumors
-Neuroendocrine tumors
-Carcinoid tumors

24

DISCRIPTION AND LOCATION
What is an adenocarcinoma?

Name the most common types of adenocarcinomas?
5

Cancer that forms in mucus-secreting glands throughout the body


1. Lung cancer
-Non-small cell lung cancer
80% of lung cancers

2. Prostate cancer
-99% of all prostate cancers

3. Pancreatic cancer
-Exocrine pancreatic cancer forms in pancreas ducts

4. Esophageal cancer
-Cancer in the glandular cells
-Most common type of esophageal cancer

5. Colorectal cancer
-Cancer in intestinal gland cells that line inside of colon or rectum
95% of colon and rectal cancers

25

DISCRIPTION AND LOCATION
1. What are the two types of small lung cell cancers?

2. What are the main types of non-small cell lung cancers? 3

1. Small Cell Lung Cancer
2 types
-Oat cell
-Combined small cell (uncommon)
10-15% of all lung cancers

2. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
85-90% of lung cancer
3 main sub-types
-Squamous cell carcinoma
-Large cell carcinoma
-Adenocarcinoma

26

DISCRIPTION AND LOCATION
Carcinoid Tumors
2 types?

1. Lung
10% of all carcinoid tumors
1-6% of all lung tumors

2. Gastrointestinal

27

Carcinoid Tumors- Lungs: Two types?

Carcinoid Tumors- GI: Form in where? 4

1. 2 types
-Typical
-Atypical


2. Form in the
-stomach,
-small intestine,
-rectum
-appendix

28

1. Describe what squamous cell carconomas look like?

2. Found where? 3

1. Thin flat cells that look like fish scales

2. Found in
-tissue that forms the surface of the skin,
-lining of hollow organs,
-lining of the respiratory tract and digestive tracts

29

1. Clear cell tumors look like what?

2. Found where? 4

1. Cells are clear or pale in color

2. Found in the
-breast,
-on the skin,
-lower urinary tract and organs of female reproductive system
-Also found in Renal Cell Carcinoma

30

DISCRIPTION AND LOCATION
1. What is a germ cell carcinoma?

2. Tumors arise in where? 2

3. Extragonadal sites? 5

1. Germ Cell Carcinoma
Cells that develop in the embryo and become the cells that make up the reproductive system

2. Tumors arise in the ovaries and testes

3. Extragonadal sites:
-Head
-Chest
-Abdomen
-Pelvis
-Lower back

31

Germ Cell Carcinoma types?
5

1. Teratomas
2. Germinomas
3. Endodermal sinus tumor/yolk sac tumor
4. Choriocarcinoma
5. Embryonal carcinoma

32

1. What is a myxoma?

2. Its the most primary tumor of the what?

1. Myxoid tumor of primitive connective tissue

2. Most common primary tumor of the heart in adults

33

What is a path report?

A document that contains the diagnosis determined by examining cells and tissue under a microscope

The report contains a gross description from the pathologist

34

What kind of tissue biopsies could you get for the path report?
4

1. Fine needle
2. Open biopsy
-Punch
-Excisional
3. Surgical excision
4. Cytology

35

Describe the following types of tissue processing:
1. Permanent section? 3 steps
2. Frozen section? 2 steps

Permanent section
1. Tissues are placed in fixative (formalin)
2. Then processed into additional solutions and final is paraffin wax
3. Then tissues are cut into thin slices, placed on slides and stained

Frozen section
1. Freezing and slicing tissue sample
2. Takes about 15-20 minutes

36

What information is on the Path report?
8

1. Patient information
2. Gross description
3. Microscopic description
4. Diagnosis
5. Tumor size
6. Tumor margins
7. Other information
8. Pathologist’s signature

37

Diagnostic terms on the Path report?

1. Abscess
2. Atypical
3. Carcinoma
4. Dysplasia
5. Granuloma
6. Hyperplasia
7. Metaplasia
8. Well-differentiated
9. Poorly differentiated
10. Mitotic rate

38

What do the following diagnostic terms mean on the Path report:
1. Atypical?
2. Carcinoma?
3. Dysplasia?
4. Granuloma?
5. Hyperplasia?
6. Metaplasia?
7. Well differentiated?
8. Poorly differentiated?
9. Mitotic rate?

1. A vague warning but not worried enough to call it cancer

2. Neoplasm derived from epithelium

3. An atypical proliferation of cells

4. Type of inflammation characterized by accumulations of macrophages which combine into “giant cells”

5. Proliferation of cells which is not neoplastic

6. One type of cell is replace with another type of cell

7. How much or how little tumor tissue looks like normal tissue it came from

8. Lack the structure and function of normal cells and grow uncontrollable

9. A measure of how fast cancer cells are dividing and growing