Flashcards in CANCER STAGING AND TUMOR TYPES Deck (38):
What is staging?
Process of finding out how much cancer is in a person’s body and where it is located
Staging helps with treatment plans and predict a person’s prognosis
The stage is based on four main factors?
1. Location of the primary tumor
2. Tumor size and extent of tumors
3. Lymph node involvement
4. Presence or absence of distant metastasis
1. Why is staging needed? 3
2. What is looked at when staging cancer? 5
3. How are cancers staged? 5
-Amount of cancer
-Where in the body
For example, the treatment for an early-stage cancer may be surgery or radiation, while a more advanced-stage cancer may need to be treated with chemotherapy.
- Extent of growth
- Lymph nodes
- Spread to distant areas
What are the types of staging?
1. Clinical staging
-Estimate of the extent of cancer based on results
2. Pathologic staging
3. Post-Therapy/Post-Neoadjuvant -Therapy Staging
Cancer staging: The TNM system?
T stands for the primary tumor
N stands for nodes
M stands for metastasis
T category gives info about primary tumor: Such as?
2. How deep it has grown into the organ it started
3. If it has grown into nearby tissues
CANCER STAGING: Describe what the followng mean:
Numbers after the T (T1-T4)?
TX: Means tumor can’t be measured
T0: Means there is no evidence of a primary tumor
Tis: Means that cancer cells are only growing into most superficial layers, without growing into deeper tissues
-Describe the tumor size
-Amount of spread into nearby tissues
-Higher the T number, the larger the tumor and spread to nearby tissue
1. N category describes what?
4. Numbers after the N? (1-3)
1. N category describes whether the cancer has spread into the lymph nodes
2. NX: Means the nearby lymph nodes can’t be evaluated
3. N0: Means nearby lymph nodes do not contain cancer
4. Numbers after the N (N1-N3)
1. M category describes what?
1. M category tell whether cancer has spread (metastasized) to distant body parts
2. M0: Means that no cancer spread was found
3. M1: Means cancer has spread to distant organs or tissues
Once TNM has been determined, cancer is staged in what?
Describe each stage:
3. Stage 0?
Roman numerals I-IV
1. I is least advanced
2. IV is most advanced
-Some will be subdivided with A & B (IIA, IIIB)
3. Stage 0 is carcinoma in situ for most cancers
Describe severity of Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III?
Higher numbers indicate more extensive disease: Larger tumor size and/or spread of the cancer beyond the organ in which it first developed to nearby lymph nodes and/or tissues or organs adjacent to the location of the primary tumor
Describe severity of stage IV?
Other staging terms? 5
The cancer has spread to distant tissues or organs
Other staging terms:
1. In situ
1. The stage of the cancer is determined only when what?
2. How does the stage change over time?
3. Survival statistics and info on treatment by stage refers to the stage when the cancer was what?
4. “Restaging” is what?
5. A ____ is written before the new stage
1. the cancer is first diagnosed
2. The stage does not change over time
3. first diagnosed
4. Term used to describe doing test to find the extent of the cancer after treatment
5. Multiple Myeloma
7. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
8. Other Types
What is the most common type of cancer?
1. Formed by what?
2. What are the two types?
1. epithelial cell
-Cells that cover the inside and outside surfaces of the body
What are the following types of carcinomas:
2. Basal Cell
3. Squamous cell
4. Transitional cell
1. Cancer that produce fluids or mucus
2. Cancer that begins in base layer of epidermis
3. Are epithelial cells that lie just beneath the outer surface of the skin
-Also line the stomach, intestines, lungs, bladder and kidneys
4. Are epithelial cells called transitional epithelium or urothelium
-Tissue made of many layers of epithelial cells that get bigger and smaller
What is a sarcoma?
Cancers that form in bone and soft tissue
1. What is the most common cancer of the bone?
2. Most common soft tissue cancer? 3
-Malignant fibrous histiocytoma
What is leukemia?
4 common types?
Cancers that begin in the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow
4 common types
1. Acute lymphoblastic
2. Acute myeloid
3. Chronic lymphoblastic
4. Chronic myeloid
1. What is lymphoma?
2. 2 main types?
1. Cancer that begins in lymphocytes (T cells or B cells)
2. 2 main types
Where does multiple myloma originate?
Cancer that begins in plasma cells
Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
1. What are these tumors named after?
2. What tumor types are in the other category? 3
1. Named based on type of cell they formed and where tumor first formed in the CNS
2. Other Types
-Germ cell tumors
DISCRIPTION AND LOCATION
What is an adenocarcinoma?
Name the most common types of adenocarcinomas?
Cancer that forms in mucus-secreting glands throughout the body
1. Lung cancer
-Non-small cell lung cancer
80% of lung cancers
2. Prostate cancer
-99% of all prostate cancers
3. Pancreatic cancer
-Exocrine pancreatic cancer forms in pancreas ducts
4. Esophageal cancer
-Cancer in the glandular cells
-Most common type of esophageal cancer
5. Colorectal cancer
-Cancer in intestinal gland cells that line inside of colon or rectum
95% of colon and rectal cancers
DISCRIPTION AND LOCATION
1. What are the two types of small lung cell cancers?
2. What are the main types of non-small cell lung cancers? 3
1. Small Cell Lung Cancer
-Combined small cell (uncommon)
10-15% of all lung cancers
2. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
85-90% of lung cancer
3 main sub-types
-Squamous cell carcinoma
-Large cell carcinoma
DISCRIPTION AND LOCATION
10% of all carcinoid tumors
1-6% of all lung tumors
Carcinoid Tumors- Lungs: Two types?
Carcinoid Tumors- GI: Form in where? 4
1. 2 types
2. Form in the
1. Describe what squamous cell carconomas look like?
2. Found where? 3
1. Thin flat cells that look like fish scales
2. Found in
-tissue that forms the surface of the skin,
-lining of hollow organs,
-lining of the respiratory tract and digestive tracts
1. Clear cell tumors look like what?
2. Found where? 4
1. Cells are clear or pale in color
2. Found in the
-on the skin,
-lower urinary tract and organs of female reproductive system
-Also found in Renal Cell Carcinoma
DISCRIPTION AND LOCATION
1. What is a germ cell carcinoma?
2. Tumors arise in where? 2
3. Extragonadal sites? 5
1. Germ Cell Carcinoma
Cells that develop in the embryo and become the cells that make up the reproductive system
2. Tumors arise in the ovaries and testes
3. Extragonadal sites:
Germ Cell Carcinoma types?
3. Endodermal sinus tumor/yolk sac tumor
5. Embryonal carcinoma
1. What is a myxoma?
2. Its the most primary tumor of the what?
1. Myxoid tumor of primitive connective tissue
2. Most common primary tumor of the heart in adults
What is a path report?
A document that contains the diagnosis determined by examining cells and tissue under a microscope
The report contains a gross description from the pathologist
What kind of tissue biopsies could you get for the path report?
1. Fine needle
2. Open biopsy
3. Surgical excision
Describe the following types of tissue processing:
1. Permanent section? 3 steps
2. Frozen section? 2 steps
1. Tissues are placed in fixative (formalin)
2. Then processed into additional solutions and final is paraffin wax
3. Then tissues are cut into thin slices, placed on slides and stained
1. Freezing and slicing tissue sample
2. Takes about 15-20 minutes
What information is on the Path report?
1. Patient information
2. Gross description
3. Microscopic description
5. Tumor size
6. Tumor margins
7. Other information
8. Pathologist’s signature
Diagnostic terms on the Path report?
9. Poorly differentiated
10. Mitotic rate